Consumer reviews and reports on scam companies, bad products and services
APX ALARM
APX Alarm Vivint seem proffesional at the time but are not. Deceptive, manipulative, poor customer service. Provo, Utah
2nd of Feb, 2011 by
A few years ago, when I first moved into my home, a door to door man came with his "deal" for a free home alarm system. All I had to do was advertise for them by putting a sign up in my front lawn. I was aware that it was not going to literally be free, that I was to pay a monthly fee, but no installation or activation fee. This man was from APX Alarm. I decided to try it out.


In the beginning there were a lot of false alarms. It was a pain. After some time I figured out that my DOGS are a much better security system than this will ever be. It would be very easy to get past APX system. There are much more advanced alarms out there these days, and I feel I am paying for something that does nothing.


I called about getting out of the contract over a year ago, and they told me that I would have to pay out the remainder of my contract in full. at that time it was over 1,500.00 I did not have that kind of money. I have a student loan, and a house full of people to care for, so I just allowed the monthly payments to continue, because it is a lot more affordable than the full price. In this phone call I was told that when I do decide to cancel service that I need to submit it in writing, because otherwise at the end of the contract, it will automatically renew for another year.


I called them again 2 nights ago, when my daughter was playing roughly in the hall, and accidentally banged into the ac adapter bending the plug badly. I told them I was afraid it would be a fire hazard, and when could someone take it out, and how much would I owe to pay off the contract. I was told I still owe about 700.00, and that I would have to pay it BEFORE they come to disconnect it. Fat chance, I don't have 700.00 to do that, I still have a vehicle that requires 1,000.00 of work! I told him That I didn't want to pay that, and end up sitting around for a month waiting for someone to take it out. He transferred me to tech support.


The man in tech support was very helpful, and walked me through how to get the unit safely out so I would not have a fire. I finally have that stupid thing out, but I am still paying until July 2012, because I can't afford all the money at once to "cancel" service.


Just to let everyone know, APX alarm has changed their name, and are now known as VIVINT


Comments
4153 days ago by Vivint
What the hell is the scam here? lol can't pay your bills? That right there is a scam. You are trying to scam a company from money you agreed to pay them... ? I am lost! You basically took part of a promotion, agreed to it, got your product, you have not had a break in "YET" so there is no value for it until it does happen and you see that your dogs are at risk. All in all, come on here for a real reason, not to bitch about how you cannot afford to pay your bill.
4114 days ago by Anonymous
well i think he is right just yesterday a man in orange came to my house and told us we can make a deal so i agree and they installed it as i was still talking i asked him if they will cover the damage if someone breakes the door or window and they said ill have to pay it my self and it takes so long for police to get here and they say its not there problem so i got pissed
4114 days ago by Anonymous
well i think he is right just yesterday a man in orange came to my house and told us we can make a deal so i agree and they installed it as i was still talking i asked him if they will cover the damage if someone breakes the door or window and they said ill have to pay it my self and it takes so long for police to get here and they say its not there problem so i got pissed
4089 days ago by Mindset555
I live in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Vivint came to my door yesterday.. After listening to the spiel of the young man, I thought the package sounded great he was offering... the old saying "if it sounds to good to be true, it probably is!".. I kept asking him what the price per month was.. and he kept telling me how good the company was.. jd power and associates blah blah blah he kept putting off my question to tell me about warranty or service. Finally after the 4th time asking he finally told me how much per month.

Vivint uses high pressure sales tactics such as I only have 5 free alarm systems to give away and Ive already gave away 3 and I only have 2 left. saying things like Your neighbors think its a "no brainier" more then once as i recall. He was trying to get me to sign right then and there and I told him I needed to do my own research on his company before just signing up. He wouldnt give me time to think about it! he said if I wanted the free installation and equipment I had to sign up on the spot. He refused to give me a pamphlet or business card and instead told me to go to the vivint website.

I trusted my gut and said no to the vivint sales rep. IM VERY HAPPY I DIDNT SIGN AFTER I READ FURTHER ABOUT VIVINT/ADX ON THE NET. im sure they are taught this in their training but he was using fear and scare tactics to manipulate my decision. Telling me my familys safety is in jeopardy. Saying my cat couldnt get out or call for help if their was a fire. Pointing out my shed can be broken into and lawnmower and things stolen. All valid points but i dont appreciate somebody knocking on my door to try and manipulate my decisions with fear.

he didnt take no for an answer either he kept saying well let me just ask you why you wouldnt want to sign up
I said because im not the kind of person to just jump in head first I need to find out about his company before I sign up for 60 bucks a month for so many years. he still tried to push the fact that i could cancel after 10 days if i wasnt satisfied with the service or equipment.. I said no again.. like i want them to drill holes and run wires all over and then find out i dont want their system so i can have it all ripped out.. plus who wants to go through all the bs of having to cancel...?

finally the guy left.. or so i thought.. my dad was around the front of the house, building the front steps. the vivint guy was trying to sell the package to my dad now.. for my house.. i lost it on the vivint guy.. i said listen i told you id do my research on vivint you dont have to try and sell it to my dad now.. we got work to do here just get out of here.. before i get pissed off.

heres the kind of logic that saved my ass..
anybody who has a product of value doesnt need to come to your door to sell it.. theyd just market it in newspapers, radio, tv.. like a normal company.
anybody who wont let you make up your mind over night or talk to anyone before signing.. shouldnt be trusted. (high pressure sales) get it now or you lose out on something.. (like a free installation/ equipment!!)
anybody who uses fear to manipulate your decisions.. (trying to get you to use your emotional brain instead of your cognitive thinking part of your brain.

also if someones body language doesnt match what they are saying then they are probably lying. these are things that will make your gut twist a twinge and then you know to trust it or trust me if u dont you'll regret it.


hopefully i was able to save you from vivint or somebody else.. if not.. save someone else some misery with your experience and at the very least learn!

Also I noticed vivint responds to every post thats negative about them.. they must pay their employees to do public relations aka damage control.
4068 days ago by 715nbear
i had a guy come to my door today-bright orange shirt, scruffy, very unprofessional. he claimed he was the regional manager and also used scare tactics and kept asking if i'm ever home alone at night and brought my kids into it and continued to say how unsafe i am. he couldn't come back tomorrow. he wouldn't let me talk it over with my boyfriend. he said he wanted to do it today and that it would only take an hour. he didn't have any equipment with him. he was very pushy/persistent. he also asked if my boyfriend works late often and what time he gets home. i felt very unsafe. he really wanted in my house and wanted to install it today. i did some research after he left and found out - if he is who he says he is he has a permit in virginia and i am no where near virginia! so what is he doing here?? he wouldn't give me any flyers or a business card either. i thought it was very suspicious. also a few weeks ago i noticed some lady taking pictures of my house in a van.. connection?? idk. but i sure hope not. i am very glad i caught on and did not let him into my home. but i am scared he is going to come back. he also said it was free and he was going to discount it as long as we put a sign in our yard for advertising ? he was gonna discount it from 80 dollars a month.. to 40.. idk it was all sorts of wrong he also asked if i knew whether my neighbors had alarms systems..
4064 days ago by Turk
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.[1]
Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species. Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.[2] In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.[3]
Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males as bucks or billies; their offspring are kids. Note that many goat breeders prefer the terms "buck" and "doe" to "billy" and "nanny". Castrated males are wethers. Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.
Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Anatomy and health
3.1 Reproduction
3.2 Diet
3.3 Behavior
3.4 Diseases
3.5 Life expectancy
4 Goats in agriculture
4.1 Worldwide goat population statistics
4.2 Husbandry
4.3 Meat
4.4 Milk, butter and cheese
4.4.1 Nutrition
4.5 Fiber
4.6 Land clearing
5 Goat breeds
6 Showing
7 Religion, mythology, and folklore
8 Feral goats
9 See also
10 References
11 External links
Etymology

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English g?t which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Geiß "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" (cf. Latin haedus "kid"), [4] itself perhaps from a root meaning "jump" (assuming that Old Church Slavonic zaj?c? "hare", Sanskrit jih?te "he moves" are related)[citation needed]. To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck") until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century. "Nanny goat" originated in the 18th century and "billy goat" in the 19th.


Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat) Commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet
History

Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans.[5] The most recent genetic analysis[6] confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. Another major genetic source of modern goats is the Bezoar goat, distributed from the mountainous regions of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind.[5]
Neolithic farmers began to keep goats for access to milk and meat, primarily, as well as for their dung, which was used as fuel, and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.[1] The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10, 000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga, Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu, dating the domestication of goats in western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago.[5]
Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment.
Anatomy and health

Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. All goats have horns unless they are "polled" meaning they have one parent with a dominant polled gene.[7] There have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.[8]
Goats are ruminants. They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates. The females have an udder consisting of two teats, in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. [9]
Goats have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, an adaptation which increases peripheral depth perception.[10] Because goats' irises are usually pale, the pupils are much more visible than in animals with horizontal pupils, but very dark irises, such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep.
Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.[11]
Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.
Reproduction


A 2 month old goat kid in a field of capeweed
Goats reach puberty between 3 and 15 months of age, depending on breed and nutrition status. Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding until the doe has reached 70% of the adult weight. However, this separation is rarely possible in extensively managed, open range herds. [12]
In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into heat every 21 days for 2 to 48 hours. A doe in heat typically flags (vigorously wags) her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.
Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the doe's heat cycles. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility but, as with the does, are capable of breeding at all times. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does. A buck in rut will display flehmen lip curling and will urinate on his forelegs and face. Sebaceous scent glands at the base of the horns add to the male goat's odor, which is important to make him attractive to the female. Some does will not mate with a buck which has been de-scented. [13]
In addition to natural mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines.


Suckling
Gestation length is approximately 150 days. Twins are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common. Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Just before kidding, the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip, as well as heavy breathing. She may have a worried look, become restless and display great affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores such as deer to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[14][15]
Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding. Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 660 to 1, 800 L (1, 500 and 4, 000 lb) of milk per 305 day lactation. On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 6 lb (2.7 l) of milk per day while she is in milk. A first time milker may produce less, or as much as 16 lb (7.3 l), or more of milk in exceptional cases. After the 305 day lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.[16] Meat, fibre, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.
Western European-origin goats without horns (polled) frequently produce intersex offspring. These are generally female animals with male characteristics, and are infertile. [13]
Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[17]
Diet
Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, except tin cans and cardboard boxes. While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their natural curiosity) will chew on and taste just about anything resembling plant matter in order to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard and paper labels from tin cans.[18] Another possibility is that the goats are curious about the unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes.


A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals
Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant. However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.[19] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. This is one reason goat rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable.
Goats prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses. Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage (corn stalks) is not good for goats, but haylage can be used if consumed immediately after opening. Alfalfa is their favorite hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious. Mold in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. Goats should not be fed grass showing any signs of mold.
The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticular/esophageal groove during suckling. At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.
Behavior


Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting
Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. Ches McCartney, nicknamed "the goat man", toured the United States for over three decades in a wagon pulled by a herd of pet goats. They are also known for escaping their pens. Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on. If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape. Being very intelligent, once a weakness in the fence has been discovered, it will be exploited repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle. The vocalization goats make is called bleating.
Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings. They do so primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue. This is why they investigate items such as buttons, camera cases or clothing (and many other things besides) by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them.
When handled as a group, goats tend to display less clumping behavior than sheep, and when grazing undisturbed, tend to spread across the field or range, rather than feed side-by-side as do sheep. When nursing young, goats will leave their kids separated ("lying out") rather than clumped as do sheep. They will generally turn and face an intruder and bucks are more likely to charge or butt at humans than are rams. [20]
Diseases
Main article: List of infectious sheep and goat diseases
While goats are generally considered hardy animals and in many situations receive little medical care, they are subject to a number of diseases.
Among the conditions affecting goats are respiratory diseases, including pneumonia, foot rot, internal parasites, pregnancy toxosis and feed toxicity.
Goats can become infected with various viral and bacterial diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, pinkeye, mastitis, and pseudorabies. They can transmit a number of zoonotic diseases to people, such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, Q-fever, and rabies. [21]
Life expectancy
Life expectancy for goats is between 15 and 18 years.[22] An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.[23]
Several factors can reduce this average expectancy, however; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to 10 or 11, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to 8 or 10.[23]
Goats in agriculture



Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile, but also produces severe erosion and desertification. Image from upper Limarí River
A goat is useful to humans either living or dead, first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and then as meat and hide. [24] Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.
For instance, the intestine is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies wellbeing (Cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.[25]


The Boer goat – in this case a buck – is a widely-kept meat breed.
Worldwide goat population statistics
According to the FAO, the top producers of goat milk in 2008 were India (4 million metric tons), Bangladesh (2.16 million metric tons) and the Sudan (1.47 metric tons.)[26]
Country/Region Total Animals (millions) Goat Milk (MT) Goat Meat (million MT)
World ----- 15.2 4.8
Africa 294.5 3.2 1.1
Nigeria 53.8 N/A 0.26
Sudan 43.1 1.47 0.19
Asia 511.3 8.89 3.4
Afghanistan 6.38 0.11 0.04
Pakistan 60.00 N/A N/A
India 125.7 4.0 0.48
Bangladesh 56.4 2.16 0.21
China 149.37 0.26 1.83
Saudi Arabia 2.2 0.076 0.024
Americas 37.3 0.54 0.15
Mexico 8.8 0.16 0.04
USA 3.1 N/A 0.022
Europe 17.86 2.59 0.012
UK 0.09 N/A N/A
France 1.2 0.58 0.007
Oceania 3.42 0.0004 0.018
Husbandry
Husbandry, or animal care and use, varies from region to region and from culture to culture. The particular housing used for goats depends not only on the intended use of the goat but also on the region of the world where they are raised. Historically, domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd. These methods of herding are still used today.
In some parts of the world, especially Europe and North America, distinct breeds of goat are kept for dairy (milk) and for meat production. As with cattle, only the females give milk. Excess male kids of dairy breeds are typically slaughtered for meat. Both does and bucks of meat breeds may be slaughtered for meat, as well as older animals of any breed. The meat of older bucks (more than 1 year old) is generally considered not desirable for meat for human consumption. Castration at a young age prevents the development of typical buck odor.
Dairy goats are generally pastured in summer and may be stabled during the winter. As dairy does are milked daily, they are generally kept close to the milking shed. Their grazing is typically supplemented with hay and with concentrates. Stabled goats may be kept in stalls similar to horses, or in larger group pens. In the US system, does are generally re-bred annually. In some European commercial dairy systems, the does are bred only twice, and are milked continuously for several years after the second kidding.
Meat goats are more frequently pastured year-round, and may be kept many miles from barns. Angora and other fiber breeds are also kept on pasture or range. Range-kept and pastured goats may be supplemented with hay or concentrates, but this happens most frequently during the winter or dry seasons.
In India, Nepal, and much of Asia, goats are kept largely for milk production, both in commercial and household settings. The goats in this area may be kept closely housed or may be allowed to range for fodder. The Salem Black goat is herded to pasture in fields and along roads during the day but is kept penned at night for safe-keeping. [27]
In Africa and the Mideast, goats are typically run in flocks with sheep. This maximizes the production per acre, as goats and sheep prefer different food plants. Multiple types of goat-raising are found in Ethiopia, where four main types of goat raising have been identified: goats kept pastured in annual crop systems, goats kept in perennial crop systems, goats kept with cattle, and goats kept in arid areas under pastoral (nomadic) herding systems. In all four systems, however, goats were typically kept in extensive systems, with few purchased inputs.[28] Household goats are traditionally kept in Nigeria. While many goats are allowed to wander the homestead or village, others are kept penned and fed in what is called a 'cut-and-carry' system. This type of husbandry is also used in parts of Latin America. Cut-and-carry, which refers to the practice of cutting down grasses, corn or cane for feed rather than allowing the animal access to the field, is particularly suited for types of feed, such as corn or cane, that are easily destroyed by trampling. [29]
Pet goats may be found in many parts of the world when a family keeps one or more animals for emotional reasons rather than as production animals. It is becoming more common for goats to be kept exclusively as pets in North America and Europe.
Meat
Main article: Goat meat
The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat;[30] in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However, some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. Its flavor is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid.[31] It can be prepared in a variety of ways including stewed, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures without additional moisture. One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States in the early 1990s. The New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.
Milk, butter and cheese


A goat being milked on an organic farm.
Goats produce approximately 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[32] Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk.
Doe milk naturally has small, well-emulsified fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized. Indeed, if the milk is going to be used to make cheese it is recommended that it is not homogenized as this changes the structure of the milk impacting the culture's ability to coagulate the milk and the final quality and yield of cheese.[33]
Dairy goats in their prime, which is generally around the third or fourth lactation cycle, average 6 to 8 pounds (2.7 to 3.6 kg) of milk production daily (roughly 3 to 4 US quarts (2.7 to 3.6 liters)) during a ten-month lactation, producing more just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5 percent butterfat. A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her third or fourth lactation.[34]
Doe milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream, yoghurt, cajeta and other products. Goat cheese is known as chèvre in France, after the French word for "goat". Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[35] Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.
Nutrition
The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages feeding infants milk derived from goats. An April 2010 case report [36] summarizes their recommendation and presents "a comprehensive review of the consequences associated with this dangerous practice, " also stating, "Many infants are exclusively fed unmodified goat's milk as a result of cultural beliefs as well as exposure to false online information. Anecdotal reports have described a host of morbidities associated with that practice, including severe electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, allergic reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic shock, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and infections." Untreated caprine brucellosis results in a 2% case fatality rate. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), doe milk is not recommended for human infants because it contains "inadequate quantities of iron, folate, vitamins C and D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs" and may cause harm to an infant's kidneys and could cause metabolic damage.[37]
The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has repeatedly released statements stating on various occasions that [38] "Goats' milk is not suitable for babies, and infant formulas and follow-on formulas based on goats' milk protein have not been approved for use in Europe, " and "infant milks based on goats' milk protein are not suitable as a source of nutrition for infants.".[39]
On the other hand, some farming groups promote the practice. For example Small Farm Today in 2005 claimed beneficial use in invalid and convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ethers, possibly important in nutrition for nursing infants, are much higher in doe milk than in cow milk.[40] A 1970 book on animal breeding claimed that doe milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition.[41] George Mateljan suggested that doe milk can replace ewe milk or cow milk in diets of those who are allergic to certain mammals' milk.[42] However, like cow milk, doe milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.[42] In fact, the level of lactose is similar to that of bovine milk.[39]
Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100g)[43]
Constituent Doe (Goat) Cow Human
Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0
Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2
Lactose (g) 4.1 4.6 6.9
Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2
Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3
Calories 70 69 68
Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams [44]
Constituents unit Cow Doe
(Goat) Ewe
(Sheep) Water
buffalo
Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
Carbohydrate g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Energy kcal 66 60 95 110
Energy kJ 275 253 396 463
Sugars (lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium IU 120 100 170 195
Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period.
Fiber
See also: Wool


An Angora goat


A Cashmere goat
The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair. The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs. The locks constantly grow and can be four inches or more in length. Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal. The wool is shorn (cut from the body) twice a year, with an average yield of about 10 pounds.
Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft. The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 9 ounces (200 grammes) of down.
In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th century, Kashmir (then called Cashmere by the English), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat down imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. The shawls were introduced into Western Europe when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799–1802) sent one to Paris. Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".

Land clearing
Goats have been used by humans to clear unwanted vegetation for centuries. They have been described as "eating machines" and "biological control agents". [45][46] There has been a resurgence of this in North America since 1990 when herds were used to clear dry brush from California hillsides thought to be endangered from potential wildfires. Since then numerous public and private agencies have hired private herds to perform similar tasks.[45] This practice has become popular in the Pacific Northwest are where they are used to remove invasive species not easily removed by humans, including (thorned) blackberry vines and Poison Oak.[45][47]
Goat breeds

Main article: List of goat breeds
Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are generally distributed in to those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.
Showing



A Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.
Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price. Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors. A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder. Children's clubs such as 4-H also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged.
Various "Dairy Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy Goat Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system. Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character.
The American Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards. The "Angora Goat scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat Breeder's Association CAGBA (which covers the white and the colored goats) includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation. Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns.
Religion, mythology, and folklore


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The goat Heiðrún consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr, while her udders produce mead, collected in a pot bellow (1895) by Lorenz Frølich.


The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt (1854).
According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage.
Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions. Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle.
The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute.
The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist. See Goat (zodiac).


The Schaffhauser Bock ("Billy Goat of Schaffhausen") on the Coat of Arms of the Swiss Canton of Schaffhausen.
Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "br?mos, " which means "stench of he-goats."
Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). Its horns can be used instead of sheep's horn to make a shofar.[48] On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. (Gospel of Matthew 25)
Popular Christian folk tradition in Europe associated Satan with imagery of goats (see Pan (mythology)). A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee). The Black Mass, a probably-mythological "Satanic mass, " was said to involve a black goat[who?], the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship.
The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head. The "Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.
Feral goats

Main article: Feral goat


Feral goat in Aruba
Goats readily revert to the wild (become feral) if given the opportunity. The only domestic animal known to return to feral life as swiftly is the cat.[5] Feral goats have established themselves in many areas: they occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos and in many other places. When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may have serious effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation. Feral goats are common in Australia.[49] However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat.
4064 days ago by Turk
A bovid (family Bovidae) is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed ruminant mammal at least the males of which bear characteristic unbranching horns covered in a permanent sheath of keratin.
The family is widespread, being native to Asia, Africa, Europe and North America, and diverse: members include bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle.
Contents [hide]
1 Characteristics
2 Evolution
3 Taxonomy
4 Classification
5 References
6 External links
[edit]Characteristics

The largest bovid, the gaur, weighs well over a ton and stands 2.2 metres high at the shoulder; the smallest, the royal antelope, weighs about 3 kg and stands no taller than a large domestic cat. Some are thick-set and muscular; others are lightly built, with small frames and long legs. Many species congregate into large groups with complex social structures, but others are mostly solitary. Within their extensive range, they occupy a wide variety of habitat types, from desert to tundra and from thick tropical forest to high mountains.
Most members of the family are herbivorous, except most duikers, which are omnivorous. Like other ruminants, bovids have a four-chambered stomach which allows them to digest plant material, such as grass, that cannot be used by many other animals. Such plant material includes much cellulose, and no higher animal can digest this directly. However, ruminants (and some others like kangaroos, rabbits and termites) are able to use microorganisms living in their gut to break down cellulose by fermentation.
Because of the size and weight of their complex digestive systems, many bovids have a solid, stocky build. However, the more gracile species tend to have more selective diets, and be browsers rather than grazers. Their upper canine teeth and incisors are missing, and are replaced with a hard, horny pad, that the lower teeth grind against to cut grass or other foliage. The outer pair of teeth in the front of the lower jaw are either considered to be canines, or to be incisors, with the canines missing. The cheek teeth are low-crowned and selenodont, and are separated from the forward teeth by a wide gap, or diastema.[2] The dental formula for bovids is similar to that of other ruminants or
All bovids have four toes on each foot – they walk on the central two (the hooves), while the outer two (the dew-claws) are much smaller and rarely if ever touch the ground. Apart from some domesticated forms, the males in all species have horns, and in many the females do, too. The size and shape of the horns vary greatly, but the basic structure is always a pair of simple bony protrusions without branches, often having a spiral, twisted or fluted form, each covered in a permanent sheath of keratin. The unique horn structure is the only unambiguous morphological feature of bovids that distinguish them from other pecorans.[3][4] Male horn development has been linked to sexual selection, [5][6] while the presence of horns in females is likely due to natural selection.[5][7] The horns of females are usually smaller than those of males, and are sometimes of a different shape. It is theorized that the horns of female bovids evolved for defense against predators or to express territoriality, as non-territorial females who are able to use crypsis for predator defense often do not have horns.[7]
[edit]Evolution

The bovid family is known through fossils from the early Miocene, around 20 million years ago. The earliest bovids, such as Eotragus, were small animals, somewhat similar to modern gazelles, and probably lived in woodland environments. The bovids rapidly diversified, and by the late Miocene, the number of bovid species had greatly expanded. This late Miocene radiation was partly due to the fact that many bovids became adapted to more open, grassland habitat.[8] There are 78 genera known from the Miocene (compared to 50 today).
Early in their evolutionary history, the bovids split into two main clades: Boodontia and Aegodontia. This early split between Boodontia (of Eurasian origin) and Aegodontia (of African origin) has been attributed to the continental divide between these landmasses. When these continents were later rejoined, this barrier was removed, and both groups expanded into each other's territory.[9]
The largest number of modern bovids is found in Africa, while substantial but less diverse populations are in Asia and North America. Some scientists[who?] has suggested that many bovid species that evolved in Asia could not survive predation by humans arriving from Africa in the late Pleistocene[citation needed]. By contrast, African species had many thousands or a few million years to adapt to the gradual development of human hunting skills. Yet many of the commonly domesticated bovid species (goats, sheep, water buffalo and yak) originated in Asia. This may be because Asian bovids had less fear of humans and were more docile.
The small number of modern American bovids are relatively recent arrivals over the Bering land bridge, but they long predate human arrival.
[edit]Taxonomy

The bovid family is commonly subdivided into eight subfamilies. Recently, two additional subfamilies have been recognised. The eight traditional subfamilies can be divided into two clades, the Boodontia (with the Bovinae as sole members) and the Aegodontia (composed of all other subfamilies). Some authors do not agree with the high number of subfamilies, although they do recognise these two clades. However, these are treated as subfamilies instead: Bovinae (without change) and Antilopinae (with all of the Aegodontid subfamilies as tribes within it).
Among the eight to ten subfamilies presented here, only some groups have a well-established phylogeny. The Bovinae, for example, are monophyletic and basal; while the Caprinae, Hippotraginae, and Alcelaphinae cluster together[further explanation needed] consistently. The phylogenetic relationships of the other subfamilies are still unclear or unresolved.[10]
4064 days ago by Turk
A pygmy goat is a small breed of domestic goat. Although they produce a very large amount of milk for their size, and can be eaten, pygmy goats are not typically used for milk or meat, unlike larger dairy and meat goat breeds. Pygmy goats tend to be more robust and breed more continually throughout the year than either dairy or meat goats. They are also sometimes kept as pets in urban or suburban backyards, depending on local regulation of livestock ownership. The pygmy goat is quite hardy, an asset in a wide variety of settings, and can adapt to virtually all climates. The anatomy of a pygmy goat shows it has many features specific to pygmy goats, such as a thurl, but also has features similar to other animals, such as the dew claw which is also found on dogs.
Contents [hide]
1 Appearance
2 Reproduction
3 Origin
4 Housing and care
5 General Information
6 References
7 External links
[edit]Appearance

Females, called does, weigh 23 to 34 kg (51 to 75 lb) and males, called bucks, weigh 27 to 39 kg (60 to 86 lb). Wither height ranges from 16 to 23 in (41 to 58 cm). Their color can range from white caramel, medium caramel, dark caramel, dark (red) caramel, silver-light grey agouti, medium grey agouti, dark grey agouti, black with frosted points, solid black, and brown agouti.
[edit]Reproduction



Young pygmy goat
Pygmy goats are precocious and polyestrous breeders; bearing one to four young every nine to twelve months after a five month gestation period. Does are usually bred for the first time at about twelve to eighteen months, although they may conceive as early as two months if care is not taken to separate them early from bucklings. Newborn kids will nurse almost immediately, begin eating grain and roughage within a week, and are weaned by three months of age.
Polyestrous sexual behavior means that they experience heat and can be freshened (made to come into milk production) year-round. If milking is a priority, a continuous supply of milk can be obtained by breeding two or more pygmy does alternately. Though some full-size dairy breeds are also noted for polyestrous sexual behavior.
[edit]Origin

Pygmy goats originated in the Cameroon Valley of West Africa. They were imported into the United States from European zoos in the 1950s for use in zoos as well as research animals. They were eventually acquired by private breeders and quickly gained popularity as pets and exhibition animals due to their good-natured personalities, friendliness and hardy constitution. Today you can find them as house pets and at petting zoos.
[edit]Housing and care



Group of pygmy goats
Pygmy goats are adaptable to most climates. Their primary diet consists of greens and grains. They enjoy having items to jump on and may be able to leap onto small vehicles. They are also in need of a shed and open area accessible at all times. They also need a companion that doesn't necessarily have to be its own species. They are prey animals and should therefore be sheltered in a predator-proof area -especially at night. Goats require fresh water at all times or they won't drink it. Pygmy goats are often affectionate if they are treated with respect. They can also be trained, though it requires quite a bit of work. It is important to make sure pygmy goats are comfortable and warm during the wintry months, when cold weather is abundant. Simple measures such as feeding pygmy goats luke warm water and luke warm food, as well as ensuring their living quarters are free from draughts, can make pygmy goats a lot happier during the winter.
4064 days ago by Turk
The Angora goat (Turkish: Ankara keçisi) is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara (formerly known as Angora), Turkey and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. Angora goats produce the lustrous fibre known as Mohair.
The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful.
Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton. More goats were imported over time, until the Civil War destroyed most of the large flocks in the south. Eventually, Angora goats began to thrive in the southwest, particularly in Texas, wherever there are sufficient grasses and shrubs to sustain them. Texas to this day remains the largest mohair producer in the U.S., and second largest in the world.
The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair. A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Turkey, United States, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair. For a long time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras.[1] Now Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber.


The American Angora Goat Breeder's Association is based in the small city of Rocksprings, Texas, in the Hill Country. Rocksprings, the seat of Edwards County, is called "the Angora goat capital of the world."
Angora goats are more susceptible to external parasites (ectoparasites) than similar animals, as their coats are denser. They are not prolific breeders, nor are they considered very hardy, being particularly delicate during the first few days of life. Further, Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development.
Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938-1952.[2]
4064 days ago by Turk
Saanen goats are a white or cream-colored breed of goat, named for the Saanen valley in Switzerland.[1] Saanens are the largest of the goat dairy breeds. Does typically weigh 150 lb (68 kg) or more, with bucks weighing over 200 lb (91 kg). The Saanen breed also produces the most milk on average, and tends to have a lower butterfat content, about 2.5%–3.0%. A Saanen nanny produces around an average of 1 gallon (3.8 litres) a day.
Just as Alpines, they are commonly used for commercial milking.
The Saanen temperament is, as a rule, calm and mild mannered; breeders have been known to refer to them as living marshmallows. Saanen goats are easier for children to handle, and are popular in the showmanship classes due to their calm nature. They typically breed every year, producing one or two kids.
The Sable Saanen is not a crossbreed, but is a recessive expression of color derived from the white Saanen. Sables can vary in color from beige through black, with almost any color but pure white (which would be a white Saanen). Sables are accepted as a breed in their own right in some dairy goat breed clubs, but not in others.
Regardless of color, the Saanen breed is large and big-boned, but graceful and refined in bone, the ears are erect, and the nose is straight or dished. Both does and bucks usually have beards unless trimmed for a show, and horns (as do most other breeds), unless dehorned at birth.
4064 days ago by Turk
Alpine is a breed of domestic goat known for its very good milking ability.
They are multi-colored and have no set markings. They have erect ears, horns, and have a dish-face.
The breed originated in the French Alps. Mature does weigh around 57 kg or 125 lbs, and are about 0.8 m or 30 inches tall at the shoulder. Alpine goats can range in color from white or gray to brown and black. Alpine goats are heavy milkers; the milk can be made into butter, cheese, soap, ice cream or any other dairy product that cow's milk can produce. They are most often used for commercial milking. The French-alpine is also referred to as the Alpine Dairy goat and registration papers for this dairy goat use both designations and they are synonymous. These are hardy, adaptable animals that thrive in any climate while maintaining good health and excellent production. The face is straight. A roman nose, Toggenburg color and markings, or all-white is discriminated against. Alpine colors are described by using the following terms:
Cou Blanc - (coo blanc) literally "white neck" - white front quarters and black hindquarters with black or gray markings on the head. Cou Clair - (coo clair) Literally "clear neck" - front quarters are tan, saffron, off-white, or shading to gray with black hindquarters. Cou Noir (coo nwah) literally "black neck" - Black front quarters and white hindquarters. Sundgau - (sundgow) black with white markings such as underbody, facial stripes, etc. Pied - spotted or mottled. Chamoisee - (shamwahzay) brown or bay - characteristic markings are black face, dorsal stripe, feet and legs and sometimes a martingale running over the withers and down to the chest. Spelling for male is chamoise. Two-tone Chamoisee - light front quarters with brown or grey hindquarters. This is not a cou blanc or cou clair as these terms are reserved for animals with black hindquarters. Broken Chamoisee - a solid chamoisee broken with another color by being banded or splashed, etc. Any variation in the above patterns broken with white should be described as a broken pattern such as a broken cou blanc.
4064 days ago by Turk
There are many recognized breeds of domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus). Goat breeds (especially dairy goats) are some of the oldest defined animal breeds for which breed standards and production records have been kept. Selective breeding of goats generally focuses on improving production of fiber, meat, dairy products, or goatskin. Breeds are generally classified based on their primary use, though there are several breeds which are considered dual- or multi-purpose goats, so there is some crossover between lists.
Contents [hide]
1 Dairy breeds
2 Fiber breeds
3 Goatskin breeds
4 Meat breeds
5 Pets and companions
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
[edit]Dairy breeds



The Golden Guernsey is a rare British dairy goat.


Alpine goats grazing


2nd generation Mini-Oberhasli goat
Alpine (goat)
American Lamancha goat
Anatolian Black Goat
Anglo-Nubian
Appenzell Goat
Argentata of Etna
Beetal
Belgian Fawn
Benadir Goat
Bhuj goat
Bionda dell'Adamello
Booted Goat
British Alpine
Brown Shorthair Goat
Canary Island Goat
Carpathian (goat)
Chamois Colored
Charnequeira
Chengdu Brown
Corsican Goat
Daera Din Panah
Damani
Damascus goat
Danish Landrace Goat
Don Goat
Dutch Landrace
Dutch Toggenburg
Erzgebirge Goat
Finnish Landrace Goat
Garganica
Girgentana Goat
Golden Guernsey
Grisons Striped
Hailun Goat
Hasi Goat
Hongtong Goat
Hungarian Improved
Irish Goat
Jamnapari goat
Jonica
Kamori
Kinder (goat)
Loashan
Majorera
Maltese (goat)
Messinese Goat
Mini Oberhasli
Murcia-Granada
Murciana goat
Nigerian Dwarf (goat)
Norwegian (goat)
Oberhasli (goat)
Orobica
Peacock Goat
Poitou Goat
Pyrenean Goat
Red Mediterranean
Russian White (goat)
Saanen goat
Sable Saanen
Sarda (goat)
Swedish Landrace
Tauernsheck
Thuringian Goat
Toggenburg (goat)
Valais Blackneck
Verata
White Shorthaired
Xinjiang Goat
[edit]Fiber breeds



An Angora goat
Altai Mountain Goat
Anatolian Black Goat
Angora goat
Australian Cashmere Goat
Cashmere goat
Changthangi
Chengde Polled
Chigu Goat
Don Goat
Hexi Cashmere
Huaitoutala
Hyrcus
Jining Grey
Kaghani
Nigora goat
Pygora Goat
Uzbek Black
Xinjiang Goat
Zalawadi
Zhiwulin Black
Zhongwei Goat
[edit]Goatskin breeds



Black Bengal Goat
Black Bengal
Don Goat
Garganica
Jining Grey
Qinshan Goat
Sahelian Goat
Zhongwei Goat
[edit]Meat breeds



Boer goats are one of the most common meat breeds.
Barbari Goat
Beetal
Benadir Goat
Bhuj goat
Black Bengal
Boer goat
Booted Goat
Canindé (goat)
Carpathian (goat)
Chamois Colored
Changthangi
Chappar
Charnequeira
Chengde Polled
Chengdu Brown
Chigu Goat
Chué
Duan Goat
Fainting goat
Haimen Goat
Hasi Goat
Hejazi Goat
Huaipi
Irish Goat
Jamnapari goat
Kaghani
Kalahari Red
Kiko goat
Moxotó
Nachi Goat
Norwegian (goat)
Philippine Goat
Pyrenean Goat
Repartida
Rove goat
Sahelian Goat
Somali Goat
Spanish goat
Stiefelgeiss
Valais Blackneck
Verata
Xinjiang Goat
Xuhai
Zalawadi
Zhiwulin Black
[edit]Pets and companions



Pygmy goats, such as this buck, are commonly kept as pets and by small farms.
Australian Miniature Goat
Nigerian Dwarf
<p style="color:red;">Pygmy</p>
4064 days ago by Turk
A fainting goat is a breed of domestic goat whose muscles freeze for roughly 10 seconds when the goat is startled. Though painless, this generally results in the animal collapsing on its side. The characteristic is caused by a hereditary genetic disorder called myotonia congenita. When startled, younger goats will stiffen and fall over. Older goats learn to spread their legs or lean against something when startled, and often they continue to run about in an awkward, stiff-legged shuffle.
Contents [hide]
1 Characteristics
2 Molecular basis for myotonia in the goats
3 Fainting Goat Festival
4 Pop culture
5 References
6 External links
[edit]Characteristics

Slightly smaller than standard breeds of goat, fainting goats are generally 43 to 64 cm (17 to 25 in) tall and can weigh anywhere from 27 to 79 kg (60 to 170 lb). Males, or bucks, as they are often referred to can be as heavy as 200 pounds.[1] They have large, prominent eyes in high sockets. Their hair can be short or long, with certain individuals producing a great deal of cashmere during colder months. There appears to be no angora strain of the fainting goat. Common coat colors are black and white; however, most possible coat colors are found in this breed.
Fainting goats have many other names, including Myotonic Goats, Tennessee (Meat) Goats, Nervous Goats, Stiff-leg Goats, Wooden-leg Goats, and Tennessee Scare Goats.[1] They are smaller and somewhat easier to care for and maintain than larger meat goat breeds, which makes the fainting goat desirable for smaller farms. They are also raised as pet or show animals as they can be friendly, intelligent, easy to keep, and amusing.
Fainting goats have a muscle condition, which is called myotonia congenita. This is a condition which occurs in many species, including humans. The goats do not truly "faint" in any sense of the word, as they never lose consciousness because of their myotonia. They remain fully conscious.[2]
Classified as a meat goat as opposed to a dairy goat, it can be raised for chevon (goat meat). This breed is listed as threatened by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy so the fainting goat is not used as often for chevon as other meat goat breeds; its rarity makes the live goat more valuable.[3] The fainting goat is specifically specialized for smaller production operations as they are unable to challenge fences as vigorously as larger meat goat breeds. This is due in part to their smaller size and also because of the myotonia. Their size makes them easier to care for during chores such as foot trimming and administering medication. Smaller specimens of fainting goats are frequently kept as pets.
Besides the myotonia, another distinguishing feature of the fainting goat is their prominently set eyes. The eyes protrude from the eye sockets, as opposed to recessed eyes seen in other breeds. The profile is straight as opposed to the convex or "roman" profile.
Even though some people breed these animals for pets, "fainting" is a disorder that most producers try to keep out of their flocks' bloodlines, unless they are purposely raising goats to have the fainting trait.
[edit]Molecular basis for myotonia in the goats

Although extensive research has been done on these goats, there have never been any conclusive results that indicate why they behave the way that they do. The idea that they have myotonia congenita has seemed to be accurate but all research has been deemed inconclusive. Beck et al. (1996) studied the chloride ion channels in the neural pathways that propagated action potential to see if these had any correlation to the goats "fainting" tendencies.[4] Although it has been proven that a lack of chloride can cause spontaneous muscle contraction, it is more likely that the actin and myosin filaments in the goat's muscle are being directly affected by a prenatal acetylcholine deficiency as shown by De Luca et al. (1991).[5] Although it is not impossible that there are other reasons that these goats enter myotonic shock, no hypothesis has yet been confirmed.
According to Dr. D. Phillip Sponenberg, DVM, PhD a noted authority on Myotonia Congentia and Tennessee Fainting Goats, Myotonia has been extensively studied in humans and somewhat less extensively in other species. It is an interesting condition, and is painless. The only consistent changes are the lack of muscle relaxation following contraction, and an increase in muscle mass over animals that lack the condition. The myotonic condition is strictly muscular, and does not involve the nerves or the brain.[6]
Dr. D. Phillip Sponenberg had this to say about Myotonic Goats in 2005:
"Myotonic goats have a very distinctive breed type that is based mostly on head and body conformation. They also have a muscle condition called myotonia congenita. This inherited trait leads to an overall increase in muscle mass so that the goats are very muscular when compared to other breeds of similar size. This trait is so distinctive that it is easy to confuse the trait with the breed. However, the Myotonic goat is much more than just a myotonic condition; it has a host of other consistent traits that are very important and need to be conserved for future generations."[1]
[edit]Fainting Goat Festival

Every year in October, fainting goats are honored in Marshall County, Tennessee at the "Goats Music and More Festival". The festival is centered on goats but has activities including music, an arts and crafts show, food vendors, and children's activities.[7]
[edit]Pop culture


This "In popular culture" section may contain minor or trivial references. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture rather than simply listing appearances, and remove trivial references. (June 2011)
Fainting goats are referenced in a song by MC Frontalot. On the album Final Boss, the song "Scare Goat" and the "AM Radio Skit" which introduces it both reference fainting goats.[citation needed]
On the U.S. television show, Mythbusters, Fainting goats are presented as a viral myth and confirmed that Fainting goats actually do "faint."[citation needed]
4064 days ago by Turk
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat.[1]
Goats are one of the oldest domesticated species. Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world.[2] In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.[3]
Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males as bucks or billies; their offspring are kids. Note that many goat breeders prefer the terms "buck" and "doe" to "billy" and "nanny". Castrated males are wethers. Goat meat from younger animals is called kid or cabrito, and from older animals is sometimes called chevon, or in some areas “mutton”.
Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Anatomy and health
3.1 Reproduction
3.2 Diet
3.3 Behavior
3.4 Diseases
3.5 Life expectancy
4 Goats in agriculture
4.1 Worldwide goat population statistics
4.2 Husbandry
4.3 Meat
4.4 Milk, butter and cheese
4.4.1 Nutrition
4.5 Fiber
4.6 Land clearing
5 Goat breeds
6 Showing
7 Religion, mythology, and folklore
8 Feral goats
9 See also
10 References
11 External links
Etymology

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English g?t which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Geiß "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" (cf. Latin haedus "kid"), [4] itself perhaps from a root meaning "jump" (assuming that Old Church Slavonic zaj?c? "hare", Sanskrit jih?te "he moves" are related)[citation needed]. To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck") until a shift to he-goat (and she-goat) occurred in the late 12th century. "Nanny goat" originated in the 18th century and "billy goat" in the 19th.


Amalthée et la chèvre de Jupiter (Amalthea and Jupiter's goat) Commissioned by the Queen of France in 1787 for the royal dairy at Rambouillet
History

Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans.[5] The most recent genetic analysis[6] confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. Another major genetic source of modern goats is the Bezoar goat, distributed from the mountainous regions of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind.[5]
Neolithic farmers began to keep goats for access to milk and meat, primarily, as well as for their dung, which was used as fuel, and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.[1] The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10, 000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga, Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu, dating the domestication of goats in western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago.[5]
Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment.
Anatomy and health

Most goats naturally have two horns, of various shapes and sizes depending on the breed. All goats have horns unless they are "polled" meaning they have one parent with a dominant polled gene.[7] There have been incidents of polycerate goats (having as many as eight horns), although this is a genetic rarity thought to be inherited. Their horns are made of living bone surrounded by keratin and other proteins, and are used for defense, dominance, and territoriality.[8]
Goats are ruminants. They have a four-chambered stomach consisting of the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum. As with other mammal ruminants, they are even-toed ungulates. The females have an udder consisting of two teats, in contrast to cattle, which have four teats. [9]
Goats have horizontal slit-shaped pupils, an adaptation which increases peripheral depth perception.[10] Because goats' irises are usually pale, the pupils are much more visible than in animals with horizontal pupils, but very dark irises, such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep.
Both male and female goats have beards, and many types of goat (most commonly dairy goats, dairy-cross boers, and pygmy goats) may have wattles, one dangling from each side of the neck.[11]
Some breeds of sheep and goats look similar, but they can usually be told apart because goat tails are short and point up, whereas sheep tails hang down and are usually longer and bigger – though some (like those of Northern European short-tailed sheep) are short, and longer ones are often docked.
Reproduction


A 2 month old goat kid in a field of capeweed
Goats reach puberty between 3 and 15 months of age, depending on breed and nutrition status. Many breeders prefer to postpone breeding until the doe has reached 70% of the adult weight. However, this separation is rarely possible in extensively managed, open range herds. [12]
In temperate climates and among the Swiss breeds, the breeding season commences as the day length shortens, and ends in early spring or before. In equatorial regions, goats are able to breed at any time of the year. Successful breeding in these regions depends more on available forage than on day length. Does of any breed or region come into heat every 21 days for 2 to 48 hours. A doe in heat typically flags (vigorously wags) her tail often, stays near the buck if one is present, becomes more vocal, and may also show a decrease in appetite and milk production for the duration of the heat.
Bucks (intact males) of Swiss and northern breeds come into rut in the fall as with the doe's heat cycles. Bucks of equatorial breeds may show seasonal reduced fertility but, as with the does, are capable of breeding at all times. Rut is characterized by a decrease in appetite and obsessive interest in the does. A buck in rut will display flehmen lip curling and will urinate on his forelegs and face. Sebaceous scent glands at the base of the horns add to the male goat's odor, which is important to make him attractive to the female. Some does will not mate with a buck which has been de-scented. [13]
In addition to natural mating, artificial insemination has gained popularity among goat breeders, as it allows easy access to a wide variety of bloodlines.


Suckling
Gestation length is approximately 150 days. Twins are the usual result, with single and triplet births also common. Less frequent are litters of quadruplet, quintuplet, and even sextuplet kids. Birthing, known as kidding, generally occurs uneventfully. Just before kidding, the doe will have a sunken area around the tail and hip, as well as heavy breathing. She may have a worried look, become restless and display great affection for her keeper. The mother often eats the placenta, which gives her much needed nutrients, helps stanch her bleeding, and parallels the behavior of wild herbivores such as deer to reduce the lure of the birth scent for predators.[14][15]
Freshening (coming into milk production) occurs at kidding. Milk production varies with the breed, age, quality, and diet of the doe; dairy goats generally produce between 660 to 1, 800 L (1, 500 and 4, 000 lb) of milk per 305 day lactation. On average, a good quality dairy doe will give at least 6 lb (2.7 l) of milk per day while she is in milk. A first time milker may produce less, or as much as 16 lb (7.3 l), or more of milk in exceptional cases. After the 305 day lactation, the doe will "dry off", typically after she has been bred. Occasionally, goats that have not been bred and are continuously milked will continue lactation beyond the typical 305 days.[16] Meat, fibre, and pet breeds are not usually milked and simply produce enough for the kids until weaning.
Western European-origin goats without horns (polled) frequently produce intersex offspring. These are generally female animals with male characteristics, and are infertile. [13]
Male lactation is also known to occur in goats.[17]
Diet
Goats are reputed to be willing to eat almost anything, except tin cans and cardboard boxes. While goats will not actually eat inedible material, they are browsing animals, not grazers like cattle and sheep, and (coupled with their natural curiosity) will chew on and taste just about anything resembling plant matter in order to decide whether it is good to eat, including cardboard and paper labels from tin cans.[18] Another possibility is that the goats are curious about the unusual smells of leftover food in discarded cans or boxes.


A domestic goat feeding in a field of capeweed, a weed which is toxic to most stock animals
Aside from sampling many things, goats are quite particular in what they actually consume, preferring to browse on the tips of woody shrubs and trees, as well as the occasional broad-leaved plant. However, it can fairly be said that their plant diet is extremely varied, and includes some species which are otherwise toxic.[19] They will seldom consume soiled food or contaminated water unless facing starvation. This is one reason goat rearing is most often free ranging, since stall-fed goat rearing involves extensive upkeep and is seldom commercially viable.
Goats prefer to browse on shrubbery and weeds, more like deer than sheep, preferring them to grasses. Nightshade is poisonous; wilted fruit tree leaves can also kill goats. Silage (corn stalks) is not good for goats, but haylage can be used if consumed immediately after opening. Alfalfa is their favorite hay; fescue is the least palatable and least nutritious. Mold in a goat's feed can make it sick and possibly kill it. Goats should not be fed grass showing any signs of mold.
The digestive physiology of a very young kid (like the young of other ruminants) is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the rumen via closure of the reticular/esophageal groove during suckling. At birth, the rumen is undeveloped, but as the kid begins to consume solid feed, the rumen soon increases in size and in its capacity to absorb nutrients.
Behavior


Goats establish a dominance hierarchy in flocks, sometimes through head butting
Goats are extremely curious and intelligent. They are easily trained to pull carts and walk on leads. Ches McCartney, nicknamed "the goat man", toured the United States for over three decades in a wagon pulled by a herd of pet goats. They are also known for escaping their pens. Goats will test fences, either intentionally or simply because they are handy to climb on. If any of the fencing can be spread, pushed over or down, or otherwise be overcome, the goats will escape. Being very intelligent, once a weakness in the fence has been discovered, it will be exploited repeatedly. Goats are very coordinated and can climb and hold their balance in the most precarious places. Goats are also widely known for their ability to climb trees, although the tree generally has to be on somewhat of an angle. The vocalization goats make is called bleating.
Goats have an intensely inquisitive and intelligent nature: they will explore anything new or unfamiliar in their surroundings. They do so primarily with their prehensile upper lip and tongue. This is why they investigate items such as buttons, camera cases or clothing (and many other things besides) by nibbling at them, occasionally even eating them.
When handled as a group, goats tend to display less clumping behavior than sheep, and when grazing undisturbed, tend to spread across the field or range, rather than feed side-by-side as do sheep. When nursing young, goats will leave their kids separated ("lying out") rather than clumped as do sheep. They will generally turn and face an intruder and bucks are more likely to charge or butt at humans than are rams. [20]
Diseases
Main article: List of infectious sheep and goat diseases
While goats are generally considered hardy animals and in many situations receive little medical care, they are subject to a number of diseases.
Among the conditions affecting goats are respiratory diseases, including pneumonia, foot rot, internal parasites, pregnancy toxosis and feed toxicity.
Goats can become infected with various viral and bacterial diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, caprine arthritis encephalitis, caseous lymphadenitis, pinkeye, mastitis, and pseudorabies. They can transmit a number of zoonotic diseases to people, such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, Q-fever, and rabies. [21]
Life expectancy
Life expectancy for goats is between 15 and 18 years.[22] An instance of a goat reaching the age of 24 has been reported.[23]
Several factors can reduce this average expectancy, however; problems during kidding can lower a doe's expected life span to 10 or 11, and stresses of going into rut can lower a buck's expected life span to 8 or 10.[23]
Goats in agriculture



Goat husbandry is common through the Norte Chico region in Chile, but also produces severe erosion and desertification. Image from upper Limarí River
A goat is useful to humans either living or dead, first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and then as meat and hide. [24] Some charities provide goats to impoverished people in poor countries, because goats are easier and cheaper to manage than cattle, and have multiple uses. In addition, goats are used for driving and packing purposes.
For instance, the intestine is used to make "catgut", which is still in use as a material for internal human surgical sutures and strings for musical instruments. The horn of the goat, which signifies wellbeing (Cornucopia), is also used to make spoons.[25]


The Boer goat – in this case a buck – is a widely-kept meat breed.
Worldwide goat population statistics
According to the FAO, the top producers of goat milk in 2008 were India (4 million metric tons), Bangladesh (2.16 million metric tons) and the Sudan (1.47 metric tons.)[26]
Country/Region Total Animals (millions) Goat Milk (MT) Goat Meat (million MT)
World ----- 15.2 4.8
Africa 294.5 3.2 1.1
Nigeria 53.8 N/A 0.26
Sudan 43.1 1.47 0.19
Asia 511.3 8.89 3.4
Afghanistan 6.38 0.11 0.04
Pakistan 60.00 N/A N/A
India 125.7 4.0 0.48
Bangladesh 56.4 2.16 0.21
China 149.37 0.26 1.83
Saudi Arabia 2.2 0.076 0.024
Americas 37.3 0.54 0.15
Mexico 8.8 0.16 0.04
USA 3.1 N/A 0.022
Europe 17.86 2.59 0.012
UK 0.09 N/A N/A
France 1.2 0.58 0.007
Oceania 3.42 0.0004 0.018
Husbandry
Husbandry, or animal care and use, varies from region to region and from culture to culture. The particular housing used for goats depends not only on the intended use of the goat but also on the region of the world where they are raised. Historically, domestic goats were generally kept in herds that wandered on hills or other grazing areas, often tended by goatherds who were frequently children or adolescents, similar to the more widely known shepherd. These methods of herding are still used today.
In some parts of the world, especially Europe and North America, distinct breeds of goat are kept for dairy (milk) and for meat production. As with cattle, only the females give milk. Excess male kids of dairy breeds are typically slaughtered for meat. Both does and bucks of meat breeds may be slaughtered for meat, as well as older animals of any breed. The meat of older bucks (more than 1 year old) is generally considered not desirable for meat for human consumption. Castration at a young age prevents the development of typical buck odor.
Dairy goats are generally pastured in summer and may be stabled during the winter. As dairy does are milked daily, they are generally kept close to the milking shed. Their grazing is typically supplemented with hay and with concentrates. Stabled goats may be kept in stalls similar to horses, or in larger group pens. In the US system, does are generally re-bred annually. In some European commercial dairy systems, the does are bred only twice, and are milked continuously for several years after the second kidding.
Meat goats are more frequently pastured year-round, and may be kept many miles from barns. Angora and other fiber breeds are also kept on pasture or range. Range-kept and pastured goats may be supplemented with hay or concentrates, but this happens most frequently during the winter or dry seasons.
In India, Nepal, and much of Asia, goats are kept largely for milk production, both in commercial and household settings. The goats in this area may be kept closely housed or may be allowed to range for fodder. The Salem Black goat is herded to pasture in fields and along roads during the day but is kept penned at night for safe-keeping. [27]
In Africa and the Mideast, goats are typically run in flocks with sheep. This maximizes the production per acre, as goats and sheep prefer different food plants. Multiple types of goat-raising are found in Ethiopia, where four main types of goat raising have been identified: goats kept pastured in annual crop systems, goats kept in perennial crop systems, goats kept with cattle, and goats kept in arid areas under pastoral (nomadic) herding systems. In all four systems, however, goats were typically kept in extensive systems, with few purchased inputs.[28] Household goats are traditionally kept in Nigeria. While many goats are allowed to wander the homestead or village, others are kept penned and fed in what is called a 'cut-and-carry' system. This type of husbandry is also used in parts of Latin America. Cut-and-carry, which refers to the practice of cutting down grasses, corn or cane for feed rather than allowing the animal access to the field, is particularly suited for types of feed, such as corn or cane, that are easily destroyed by trampling. [29]
Pet goats may be found in many parts of the world when a family keeps one or more animals for emotional reasons rather than as production animals. It is becoming more common for goats to be kept exclusively as pets in North America and Europe.
Meat
Main article: Goat meat
The taste of goat kid meat is similar to that of spring lamb meat;[30] in fact, in the English-speaking islands of the Caribbean, and in some parts of Asia, particularly Pakistan and India, the word “mutton” is used to describe both goat and lamb meat. However, some compare the taste of goat meat to veal or venison, depending on the age and condition of the goat. Its flavor is said to be primarily linked to the presence of 4-methyloctanoic and 4-methylnonanoic acid.[31] It can be prepared in a variety of ways including stewed, baked, grilled, barbecued, minced, canned, fried, curried, or made into sausage. Due to its low fat content, the meat can toughen at high temperatures without additional moisture. One of the most popular goats grown for meat is the South African Boer, introduced into the United States in the early 1990s. The New Zealand Kiko is also considered a meat breed, as is the myotonic or "fainting goat", a breed originating in Tennessee.
Milk, butter and cheese


A goat being milked on an organic farm.
Goats produce approximately 2% of the world's total annual milk supply.[32] Some goats are bred specifically for milk. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk.
Doe milk naturally has small, well-emulsified fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized. Indeed, if the milk is going to be used to make cheese it is recommended that it is not homogenized as this changes the structure of the milk impacting the culture's ability to coagulate the milk and the final quality and yield of cheese.[33]
Dairy goats in their prime, which is generally around the third or fourth lactation cycle, average 6 to 8 pounds (2.7 to 3.6 kg) of milk production daily (roughly 3 to 4 US quarts (2.7 to 3.6 liters)) during a ten-month lactation, producing more just after freshening and gradually dropping in production toward the end of their lactation. The milk generally averages 3.5 percent butterfat. A doe may be expected to reach her heaviest production during her third or fourth lactation.[34]
Doe milk is commonly processed into cheese, butter, ice cream, yoghurt, cajeta and other products. Goat cheese is known as chèvre in France, after the French word for "goat". Some varieties include Rocamadour and Montrachet.[35] Goat butter is white because goats produce milk with the yellow beta-carotene converted to a colorless form of vitamin A.
Nutrition
The American Academy of Pediatrics discourages feeding infants milk derived from goats. An April 2010 case report [36] summarizes their recommendation and presents "a comprehensive review of the consequences associated with this dangerous practice, " also stating, "Many infants are exclusively fed unmodified goat's milk as a result of cultural beliefs as well as exposure to false online information. Anecdotal reports have described a host of morbidities associated with that practice, including severe electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, megaloblastic anemia, allergic reactions including life-threatening anaphylactic shock, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and infections." Untreated caprine brucellosis results in a 2% case fatality rate. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), doe milk is not recommended for human infants because it contains "inadequate quantities of iron, folate, vitamins C and D, thiamin, niacin, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid to meet an infant’s nutritional needs" and may cause harm to an infant's kidneys and could cause metabolic damage.[37]
The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has repeatedly released statements stating on various occasions that [38] "Goats' milk is not suitable for babies, and infant formulas and follow-on formulas based on goats' milk protein have not been approved for use in Europe, " and "infant milks based on goats' milk protein are not suitable as a source of nutrition for infants.".[39]
On the other hand, some farming groups promote the practice. For example Small Farm Today in 2005 claimed beneficial use in invalid and convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ethers, possibly important in nutrition for nursing infants, are much higher in doe milk than in cow milk.[40] A 1970 book on animal breeding claimed that doe milk differs from cow or human milk by having higher digestibility, distinct alkalinity, higher buffering capacity, and certain therapeutic values in human medicine and nutrition.[41] George Mateljan suggested that doe milk can replace ewe milk or cow milk in diets of those who are allergic to certain mammals' milk.[42] However, like cow milk, doe milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.[42] In fact, the level of lactose is similar to that of bovine milk.[39]
Basic composition of various milks (mean values per 100g)[43]
Constituent Doe (Goat) Cow Human
Fat (g) 3.8 3.6 4.0
Protein (g) 3.5 3.3 1.2
Lactose (g) 4.1 4.6 6.9
Ash (g) 0.8 0.7 0.2
Total solids (g) 12.2 12.3 12.3
Calories 70 69 68
Milk composition analysis, per 100 grams [44]
Constituents unit Cow Doe
(Goat) Ewe
(Sheep) Water
buffalo
Water g 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein g 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat g 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
Carbohydrate g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Energy kcal 66 60 95 110
Energy kJ 275 253 396 463
Sugars (lactose) g 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium IU 120 100 170 195
Saturated fatty acids g 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
Monounsaturated fatty acids g 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
Polyunsaturated fatty acids g 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period.
Fiber
See also: Wool


An Angora goat


A Cashmere goat
The Angora breed of goats produces long, curling, lustrous locks of mohair. The entire body of the goat is covered with mohair and there are no guard hairs. The locks constantly grow and can be four inches or more in length. Angora crossbreeds, such as the pygora and the nigora, have been created to produce mohair and/or cashgora on a smaller, easier-to-manage animal. The wool is shorn (cut from the body) twice a year, with an average yield of about 10 pounds.
Most goats have softer insulating hairs nearer the skin, and longer guard hairs on the surface. The desirable fiber for the textile industry is the former, and it goes by several names (down, cashmere and pashmina). The coarse guard hairs are of little value as they are too coarse, difficult to spin and difficult to dye. The cashmere goat produces a commercial quantity of cashmere wool, which is one of the most expensive natural fibers commercially produced; cashmere is very fine and soft. The cashmere goat fiber is harvested once a year, yielding around 9 ounces (200 grammes) of down.
In South Asia, cashmere is called "pashmina" (from Persian pashmina, "fine wool"). In the 18th and early 19th century, Kashmir (then called Cashmere by the English), had a thriving industry producing shawls from goat down imported from Tibet and Tartary through Ladakh. The shawls were introduced into Western Europe when the General in Chief of the French campaign in Egypt (1799–1802) sent one to Paris. Since these shawls were produced in the upper Kashmir and Ladakh region, the wool came to be known as "cashmere".

Land clearing
Goats have been used by humans to clear unwanted vegetation for centuries. They have been described as "eating machines" and "biological control agents". [45][46] There has been a resurgence of this in North America since 1990 when herds were used to clear dry brush from California hillsides thought to be endangered from potential wildfires. Since then numerous public and private agencies have hired private herds to perform similar tasks.[45] This practice has become popular in the Pacific Northwest are where they are used to remove invasive species not easily removed by humans, including (thorned) blackberry vines and Poison Oak.[45][47]
Goat breeds

Main article: List of goat breeds
Goat breeds fall into overlapping, general categories. They are generally distributed in to those used for dairy, fiber, meat, skins, and as companion animals. Some breeds are also particularly noted as pack goats.
Showing



A Nigerian Dwarf milker in show clip. This doe is angular and dairy with a capacious and well supported mammary system.
Goat breeders' clubs frequently hold shows, where goats are judged on traits relating to conformation, udder quality, evidence of high production, longevity, build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who show their goats usually keep registered stock and the offspring of award-winning animals command a higher price. Registered goats, in general, are usually higher-priced if for no other reason than that records have been kept proving their ancestry and the production and other data of their sires, dams, and other ancestors. A registered doe is usually less of a gamble than buying a doe at random (as at an auction or sale barn) because of these records and the reputation of the breeder. Children's clubs such as 4-H also allow goats to be shown. Children's shows often include a showmanship class, where the cleanliness and presentation of both the animal and the exhibitor as well as the handler's ability and skill in handling the goat are scored. In a showmanship class, conformation is irrelevant since this is not what is being judged.
Various "Dairy Goat Scorecards" (milking does) are systems used for judging shows in the US. The American Dairy Goat Association (ADGA) scorecard for an adult doe includes a point system of a hundred total with major categories that include general appearance, the dairy character of a doe (physical traits that aid and increase milk production), body capacity, and specifically for the mammary system. Young stock and bucks are judged by different scorecards which place more emphasis on the other three categories; general appearance, body capacity, and dairy character.
The American Goat Society (AGS) has a similar, but not identical scorecard that is used in their shows. The miniature dairy goats may be judged by either of the two scorecards. The "Angora Goat scorecard" used by the Colored Angora Goat Breeder's Association CAGBA (which covers the white and the colored goats) includes evaluation of an animal's fleece color, density, uniformity, fineness, and general body confirmation. Disqualifications include: a deformed mouth, broken down pasterns, deformed feet, crooked legs, abnormalities of testicles, missing testicles, more than 3 inch split in scrotum, and close-set or distorted horns.
Religion, mythology, and folklore


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The goat Heiðrún consumes the foliage of the tree Læraðr, while her udders produce mead, collected in a pot bellow (1895) by Lorenz Frølich.


The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt (1854).
According to Norse mythology, the god of thunder, Thor, has a chariot that is pulled by the goats Tanngrisnir and Tanngnjóstr. At night when he sets up camp, Thor eats the meat of the goats, but take care that all bones remain whole. Then he wraps the remains up, and in the morning, the goats always come back to life to pull the chariot. When a farmer's son who is invited to share the meal breaks one of the goats' leg bones to suck the marrow, the animal's leg remains broken in the morning, and the boy is forced to serve Thor as a servant to compensate for the damage.
Possibly related, the Yule Goat is one of the oldest Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbols and traditions. Yule Goat originally denoted the goat that was slaughtered around Yule, but it may also indicate a goat figure made out of straw. It is also used about the custom of going door-to-door singing carols and getting food and drinks in return, often fruit, cakes and sweets. "Going Yule Goat" is similar to the British custom wassailing, both with heathen roots. The Gävle Goat is a giant version of the Yule Goat, erected every year in the Swedish city of Gävle.
The Greek god, Pan, is said to have the upper body of a man and the horns and lower body of a goat. Pan was a very lustful god, nearly all of the myths involving him had to do with him chasing nymphs. He is also credited with creating the pan flute.
The goat is one of the twelve-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. Each animal is associated with certain personality traits; those born in a year of the goat are predicted to be shy, introverted, creative, and perfectionist. See Goat (zodiac).


The Schaffhauser Bock ("Billy Goat of Schaffhausen") on the Coat of Arms of the Swiss Canton of Schaffhausen.
Several mythological hybrid creatures are believed to consist of parts of the goat, including the Chimera. The Capricorn sign in the Western zodiac is usually depicted as a goat with a fish's tail. Fauns and satyrs are mythological creatures that are part goat and part human. The mineral bromine is named from the Greek word "br?mos, " which means "stench of he-goats."
Goats are mentioned many times in the Bible. A goat is considered a "clean" animal by Jewish dietary laws and was slaughtered for an honored guest. It was also acceptable for some kinds of sacrifices. Goat-hair curtains were used in the tent that contained the tabernacle (Exodus 25:4). Its horns can be used instead of sheep's horn to make a shofar.[48] On Yom Kippur, the festival of the Day of Atonement, two goats were chosen and lots were drawn for them. One was sacrificed and the other allowed to escape into the wilderness, symbolically carrying with it the sins of the community. From this comes the word "scapegoat". A leader or king was sometimes compared to a male goat leading the flock. In the New Testament, Jesus told a parable of The Sheep and the Goats. (Gospel of Matthew 25)
Popular Christian folk tradition in Europe associated Satan with imagery of goats (see Pan (mythology)). A common superstition in the Middle Ages was that goats whispered lewd sentences in the ears of the saints. The origin of this belief was probably the behavior of the buck in rut, the very epitome of lust. The common medieval depiction of the Devil was that of a goat-like face with horns and small beard (a goatee). The Black Mass, a probably-mythological "Satanic mass, " was said to involve a black goat[who?], the form in which Satan supposedly manifested himself for worship.
The goat has had a lingering connection with Satanism and pagan religions, even into modern times. The inverted pentagram, a symbol used in Satanism, is said to be shaped like a goat's head. The "Baphomet of Mendes" refers to a satanic goat-like figure from 19th century occultism.
Feral goats

Main article: Feral goat


Feral goat in Aruba
Goats readily revert to the wild (become feral) if given the opportunity. The only domestic animal known to return to feral life as swiftly is the cat.[5] Feral goats have established themselves in many areas: they occur in Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, the Galapagos and in many other places. When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may have serious effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation. Feral goats are common in Australia.[49] However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat.
4064 days ago by Turk
The feral goat is the domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) when it has become established in the wild. Feral goats occur in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Great Britain, Hawaii, the Galapagos and in many other parts of the world. When feral goats reach large populations in habitats which are not adapted to them, they may become an invasive species with serious negative effects, such as removing native scrub, trees and other vegetation. However, in other circumstances they may become a natural component of the habitat, even replacing locally extinct wild goats. Feral goats are sometimes used for conservation grazing, to control the spread of undesirable scrub or weeds in open natural habitats such as chalk grassland and heathland.
Contents [hide]
1 Feral goats throughout the world
1.1 Australia
1.2 Galapagos
1.3 Ireland
1.4 Juan Fernandez
1.5 New Zealand
1.6 Scotland
1.7 United States
1.8 Wales
2 References
[edit]Feral goats throughout the world

[edit]Australia
Main article: Feral goats in Australia
Goats were first introduced into Australia in 1788. Since then they have become feral and are now causing an estimated economic loss of $25 million per year as well as environmental degradation.
[edit]Galapagos
Feral goats have caused serious damage to native vegetation on the Galapagos archipelago. However, recent intensive eradication efforts have eliminated goats on Isabela, Pinta and Santiago.[1]
[edit]Ireland
Feral goats are common in many areas of the Irish west coast including counties Mayo, Donegal and Kerry. In the town of Kilorglin, in County Kerry, a Puck Fair takes place each year in which a wild goat is captured and crowned "King" of the fair, in a continuation of ancient Celtic practices. The Bilberry Goats are feral goats living on Bilberry Rock in Waterford City.
[edit]Juan Fernandez
Feral goats, introduced in 1574, had become a plague in the Juan Fernández Islands.
[edit]New Zealand
The Arapawa Island goat is a breed of feral goat found only on Arapawa Island. There was also an Auckland Island Goat, but it became extinct in the late 20th century. The New Zealand Feral goat is the descendant of many other species of goat, such as Angora, Kiko, Spanish, Pygora, Boer, Saanen, Nubian and Alpine.[citation needed]
[edit]Scotland
Feral goats are a fairly common sight in the Scottish Highlands. The goats are descendants of livestock abandoned, through necessity, by Highlanders during the Highland Clearances. The goats act as a living reminder of the region's turbulent past.
[edit]United States
The San Clemente Island goats were a feral species that arrived in 1875 on San Clemente Island from Santa Catalina Island, both off the coast of California. They remained isolated there until several were adopted out to become domesticated on the mainland in the United States and western Canada. The US Navy was given the right to exterminate the last remaining feral goats on San Clemente Island in 1991. They are genetically related to Iberian goats, though their isolation has caused enough genetic drift to make them distinct from goats now in Spain and other Spanish goats in the United States. The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy considers them a critically endangered heritage breed. In 2008, their global population was approximately 400; all now domesticated. Feral goats in australia are mainly found in the suburbs of Sydney.
[edit]Wales
Feral goats occur in the Welsh mountains. They are used for conservation grazing in a number of places, such as at Stackpole in south Wales.
4064 days ago by Turk
The Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. Despite its vernacular name, it is not a member of Capra, the genus of true goats. It stays at high elevations and is a sure-footed climber, often resting on rocky cliffs that predators cannot reach.
Contents [hide]
1 Classification
2 General appearance and characteristics
3 Range and habitat
4 Movement patterns
5 Diet
6 Life cycle and breeding
7 Aggressive behavior
8 Wool
9 See also
10 References
11 Gallery
12 External links
[edit]Classification

The mountain goat is an even-toed ungulate of the order Artiodactyla and the family Bovidae that includes antelopes, gazelles, and cattle. It belongs to the subfamily Caprinae (goat-antelopes), along with thirty-two other species including true goats, sheep, the chamois, and the musk ox. The mountain goat is the only species in the genus Oreamnos. The name Oreamnos is derived from the Greek term oros (stem ore-) "mountain" (or, alternatively, oreas "mountain nymph") and the word amnos "lamb".
[edit]General appearance and characteristics



Photo taken from Huron Peak, Colorado
Both male and female mountain goats have beards, short tails, and long black horns, 15–28 cm in length, which contain yearly growth rings. They are protected from the elements by their woolly white double coats. The fine, dense wool of their undercoats is covered by an outer layer of longer, hollow hairs. In spring, mountain goats moult by rubbing against rocks and trees, with the adult billies (males) shedding their extra wool first and the pregnant nannies (females) shedding last. In the winter, their coats help them to withstand temperatures as low as ?50 °F (?46 °C) and winds of up to 100 mph (160 km/h).
A billy stands about three feet (1 m) at the shoulder to the waist. Male goats also have longer horns and a longer beard than nannies. Mountain goats typically weigh between 100 and 300 lbs (45–136 kg);[2] females are usually 10-30% lighter than males.
The mountain goat's feet are well-suited for climbing steep, rocky slopes, sometimes with pitches of 60 degrees or more, with inner pads that provide traction and cloven hooves that can be spread apart as needed. Also, the tips of their feet have dewclaws that are sharp to keep them from slipping.
[edit]Range and habitat



Mountain Goat on Mount Massive, Colorado, USA
The mountain goat inhabits the Rocky Mountains and Cascade Range regions of North America, from northern Washington, Idaho and Montana through British Columbia and Alberta, into the southern Yukon and southeastern Alaska. Its northernmost range is said to be along the northern fringe of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. Introduced populations can also be found in such areas as Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, Colorado, Texas, South Dakota and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington.
Mountain goats are the largest mammals found in their high-altitude habitats, which reach elevations of 13, 000 feet (4, 000 m) or more. Although they sometimes descend to sea level in coastal areas, they are primarily an alpine and subalpine species. Throughout the year, the animals usually stay above the tree line, but they will migrate seasonally to higher or lower elevations within that range. Winter migrations to low-elevation mineral licks often take them several or more kilometers through forested areas.[3]


Young 'goat' licking handrail for salt
[edit]Movement patterns

Daily movements by individual mountain goats are primarily confined to areas on the same mountain face, drainage basin, or alpine opening. Daily movements reflect an individual’s needs for foraging, resting, thermoregulation and security from predators or disturbance. Seasonal movements primarily reflect nutritional needs (e.g., movements to and from mineral licks/salt lick), reproductive needs (i.e., movement of pre-parturient females to “kidding” areas; movement to rutting areas), and climatic influences (i.e., movement to areas in response to foraging conditions). In general, seasonal movements are likely to exhibit a strong elevational component, whereby lower, forested elevations are used during the spring-summer (security cover effects) to access lower elevation mineral licks, and during winter (thermal cover effects) to access forage. The farthest movements are expected to be by dispersing mountain goats. Such movements are likely to involve mountain goats crossing forested valleys as they move between mountain blocks.


Mountain Goat near the summit of Huron Peak, Colorado, elevation 4, 269 meters
[edit]Diet

Mountain goats are herbivores and spend most of their time grazing. Their diet includes grasses, herbs, sedges, ferns, moss, lichen, twigs and leaves from the low-growing shrubs and conifers of their high-altitude habitat.
In captivity, the mountain goat's diet can also include grain, alfalfa, fruits, and vegetables.
[edit]Life cycle and breeding

In the wild, mountain goats usually live twelve to fifteen years, with their lifespan limited by the wearing down of their teeth. In zoos, however, they can live for sixteen to twenty years. Kids are born in the spring (late May or early June) after a six month gestation period. Nannies give birth, usually to a single offspring, after moving to an isolated ledge; post-partum, they lick the baby dry and ingest the placenta. Kids weigh a little over 3 kg (7 lb) at birth and begin to run and climb (or attempt to do so) within hours. Although they are mostly weaned within one month, kids follow their mothers closely for the first year of life (or until the nanny gives birth again, if this does not occur the next breeding season); nannies protect their young by leading them out of danger, standing over them when faced by predators, and positioning themselves below their kids on steep slopes to stop free falls. Mountain goats reach sexual maturity at about thirty months. Nannies in a herd undergo synchronized estrus in late October through early December, at which time males and females participate in a mating ritual. Mature billies will stare at nannies for long periods, dig rutting pits, and fight each other in showy (though occasionally dangerous) scuffles. Young billies sometimes try to participate, but they are ignored by nannies; nannies will also sometimes pursue inattentive billies. Both males and females usually mate with multiple individuals during breeding season, although some billies try to keep other males away from certain nannies. After the breeding season is over, males and females move away from each other, with the adult billies breaking up into small bands of two or three individuals. Nannies form loose-knit nursery groups of up to 50 animals.
[edit]Aggressive behavior

Nannies can be very competitive and protective of their space and food sources. They will fight with one another for dominance in conflicts that can ultimately include all the nannies in the herd. In these battles, nannies will circle each other with their heads lowered, showing off their horns. As with fights between billies during breeding season, these conflicts can occasionally lead to injury or even death, but they are largely harmless. To avoid fighting, an animal may show a posture of non-aggression by stretching low to the ground.
In lower regions below the tree line, nannies also use their fighting abilities to protect themselves and their offspring from predators, such as wolves, wolverines, cougars, lynx and bears. Even though their size protects them from most potential predators in higher altitudes, nannies still must defend their young from golden eagles, which can be a threat to very young kids. Nannies have even been observed trying to dominate the more passive bighorn sheep that share some of their territory.
Mountain goats can occasionally be aggressive towards humans, with at least one reported fatality resulting from an attack by a mountain goat.[4]


Alpine Junction, Wyoming
[edit]Wool

Although the Mountain goat has never been domesticated and commercialized for their wool, pre-columbian Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast did incorporate their wool into their weaving by collecting spring moulted wool left by wild goats.[5]
4063 days ago by Turk
The Boer goat was developed in South Africa in the early 1900s for meat production. Their name is derived from the Dutch word "Boer" meaning farmer. The Boer goat was probably bred from the indigenous goats of the Namaqua Bushmen and the Fooku tribes, with some crossing of Indian and European bloodlines being possible. They were selected for meat rather than milk production; due to selective breeding and improvement, the Boer goat has a fast growth rate and excellent carcass qualities, making it one of the most popular breeds of meat goat in the world. Boer goats have a high resistance to disease and adapt well to hot, dry semi-deserts. United States production is centered in west-central Texas, particularly in and around San Angelo. The original US breeding stock came from herds located in New Zealand. Only later were they imported directly from South Africa.
Boer goats commonly have white bodies and distinctive brown heads. Like the Nubian goat, they possess long, pendulous ears. They are noted for being docile, fast growing, and having high fertility rates. Does are reported to have superior mothering skills as compared to other goats. Mature Boer bucks weigh between 110–135 kg (240-300 lb), and mature does between 90–100 kg (200-220 lb).
Contents [hide]
1 Commercial meat production
1.1 Bucks
1.2 Does
1.3 Cross breeding
1.4 Show goats
1.5 Horns
1.6 Popular Culture
2 See also
3 References
4 External links
Commercial meat production



A young kid
Meat goats are minimal care animals that are browsers by nature, preferring brush, shrubs, and broadleaf weeds rather than grass. Boer goats raised for meat production are typically raised on pastures. The main reasons for this are twofold: pastured goats are on average healthier animals than pen-raised goats; secondly, it costs far less to raise Boer goats on a diet of brush and weeds, than on bags of commercial feed. The ideal option is adequate year-round grazing with only mineral supplementation. Boer goats can be raised effectively in combination with cattle or sheep due to their preference for browse and the resulting limited impact on the grass cover. They do compete with other browsers, such as deer.
Trace minerals, especially copper, are particularly important to good goat health. Feed and mineral blocks marked "for sheep and goats" should be avoided. Copper in quantities suitable for goats is toxic to sheep, so dual sheep/goat feeds will almost always lack sufficient copper for goats. Copper deficiency is known to cause anemia, diarrhea, infertility, spontaneous abortions, and lethargy.
Bucks


A male Boer Goat
The most critical part of any meat goat operation is the selection of a herd sire (breeding buck). A high quality buck can produce high quality offspring even when mated with an average doe. Boer goats tend to gain weight at about the same rate as their sire, so a buck from a proven fast growing bloodline will command the highest price, as its offspring will tend to also be fast growers. The primary market for slaughter goats is a 22–36 kg (50-80 lb) kid; kids should reach marketable size at weaning age. The kid of a proven fast-growing sire might weigh 36 kg (80 lb) at 90 days, while the kid of a poor quality sire might weigh only 15 kg (35 lb) at 90 days. An average quality buck will initially be less expensive to purchase; however, they can significantly undermine an operation's long-term profitability. Other criteria for a breeding buck include:
Jaw alignment – most meat goats are raised on pasture. A goat with poor jaw alignment will be at a significant disadvantage when feeding on pasture; poor jaw alignment is not acceptable in a commercial herd sire.
Good feet and legs: needed to move about the pasture. Hoof rot is a common problem for goats that live in high rain areas if the hooves are not clipped regularly.
Two well formed equal-size testes in a single scrotum: the main purpose of a buck is to breed does.
For breeding purposes, one buck is normally required for every 25-35 does. Under ideal conditions the ratio can be as high as one buck for every 50 does. Bucks are normally separated from the does except for when breeding is specifically intended. Often does are bred for six weeks every 8 months, resulting in three kid crops every two years.
Successful bucks must be able to survive on pasture. Pen-raised bucks will stay near their pen, while the does they are supposed to breed are out in the pasture.
Does
Does used to breed show quality goats are normally very large, as show goats are expected to be of large stature. For commercial meat production medium size does are normally preferred as they produce the same number of kids, but require less feed to do so.


A three year old buck
As a general rule the more kids born per doe, the greater profit margins for the owner. Boer goats are polyestrous (they can breed throughout the year), and they reach sexual maturity at 5 months of age. A typical breeding program is to produce 3 kid crops every 2 years; meaning the does are pregnant for 5 months, nurse their kids for 3 months, and then are rebred. Multiple births are common and a 200% kid crop is achievable in managed herds. Usually first time does will have one kid, but it is possible for them to have more. After that, they will have an average of two kids each time.
Weaning size is largely controlled by how much milk the mother produces, along with how long she allows each kid to nurse. Does weaning large kids should be kept, those weaning small to medium kids should be removed from the herd.
The presence of a buck causes does to come into estrus (heat), which lasts about 24–36 hours. The gestation period for does varies from 149 to 155 days.
Boer does are normally very good mothers, requiring only minimal attention from the owner; however, this is not always true when a doe delivers her very first kid. First time does should be supervised, as the mothering instinct may not manifest itself the first time she delivers. After the first time, Boer does normally make excellent mothers. If after that a doe does not present herself to have "mothering instincts", it is best not to keep her.
Cross breeding


A 7/8 (F3) Boer Goat, paint doe
While purebred bucks are usually preferred for breeding purposes, it is common to use crossbreed does for kid production, with the resulting offspring being 7/8 or more Boer. Common crosses are Boer x Spanish goat, Boer x Angora goat, Boer x Kiko goat, and Boer x Nubian goat.
Percentage Boer goats are very common in commercial meat herds, and with those just starting out in the Boer goat business due to ease of acquisition and affordability. Over time, percentage animals can be bred up to American purebred status. An American purebred is a Boer goat of 15/16ths Boer blood (F4) for does and 31/32nds blood (F5) for Boer bucks. Bucks must be one generation of Boer breeding higher than does to achieve this status because they have the potential to spread their genetic pool much further than any single doe; a higher level of Boer blood lessens the chances of other breed qualities in the offspring. American purebreds can never be registered as Fullblood (FB), many breeders will still use a good American Purebred buck with excellent results.
Many producers still prefer purebred or fullblood bucks and does, and intentional crossbreeding is far from universal.
Note: The 'F' designation is the commonly used shorthand for indicating the percentage of pure blood (boer in this case) resulting from cross breeding of a Pureblood boer buck with does of other breeds:
F1 : 1/2 boer blood (Pureblood buck sire, other breed doe)
F2 : 3/4 boer blood (Pureblood buck sire, F1 doe)
F3 : 7/8 boer blood (Pureblood buck sire, F2 doe)
F4 : 15/16 boer blood (Pureblood buck sire, F3 doe)
F5 : 31/32 boer blood (Pureblood buck sire, F4 doe)
Show goats


Buck with does
Although Boer goats raised specifically for show purposes may seem to have little in common with pastured commercial goats, the difference is superficial. They are bred to be larger than normal goats, and meet specific visual appearances, but these very characteristics are valuable genes to add to the commercial herd. Boer goats were originally imported into the US and other countries for this very reason. Their value to ranchers lies in the improvement the addition of their unique genes can offer any breed of goats being raised for meat. Few producers could afford to maintain a herd of essentially useless animals. Show goats are bred to represent the most desirable characteristics of the Boer goat. And their main purpose is to introduce these animals to the public. It is also a method of recognizing the best of the best, although some really superior goats are not shown due to owner preference. Bucks and does that have been bred for show can be and often are used for commercial breeding stock.[1] To show, most Boer goats have to be registered with either the ABGA, IBGA, or USBGA.
Horns
The horns on a boer goat act as a "cooling mechanism" that connect to the sinus cavities at the head. The vascularity of the horn contributes to the regulation of body temperature in boer goats. The circulation of blood to the horn influence the temperature of the brain. Horns are mostly used to scratch with and are not used aggressively. Goats do use them to spar with each other during play fights but this does not lead to any injury. The goats horns are not used against people.
Popular Culture
On April 14, 2010, Zynga Games added the Boer Goat as an adoptable animal in their FarmVille game. In the game the only way to get a Boer Goat is to adopt it from one of your FarmVille neighbour's Facebook newsfeed. If you "find" the Boer Goat on your farm you cannot keep it for yourself.
4053 days ago by Haneyps
My wife and I use ADT. We are very happy with the customer service. I spoke to a salesperson over the phone and they walked me through everything...very professional. The young man who arrived and performed the installation was very professional as well. Our monthly fee is $45 which includes the unit that uses the cellular service versus a land line (approximately $35 for the landline service). Cellular is much more secure because a burglar will look for the landline to cut. If your service uses cellular technology, you will be much happier and safer. If you will notice, the first comment on this page was from someone who represents Vivint. Kinda funny. I do agree with him in one respect. The person who wrote the complaint mentioned three times they couldn't afford the service which is, by the way, outragous at $60 per month. There's NO WAY I would pay that much for the service.

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