|Vivint Security Systems|
|Vivint Security Systems Fraudalent Information Internet Virginia |
|22nd of Aug, 2011 by User458275 |
|A representative from this company showed up at my 83 yr old father's house telling him they noticed he had the old sign from ADT displayed in his yard and that his company had bought out ADT. They came in and rewired his house, had him sign a new contract because it was a new "name" for company and displayed a new sign. We investigated this within 24 hours and discovered that ADT had not gone out of business. Fortunately, ADT agreed to come out and put their equipment back in at no charge. I feel this company is taking advantage of elderly people.|
My dad is a very sharp 83 yr old and I feel if they were able to take advantage of him, they are taking advantage of a lot of other people who are usually capable of making cautious decisions.
This company needs to be stopped.
|ADT Security Services, originally American District Telegraph, now also known as simply ADT, is a division of Tyco International and a worldwide supplier of electronic security systems, fire alarm systems, communication systems, and integrated building management systems.|
1.1 ADT in the UK
2 Operations today
2.1 ADT dealers
3 Legal Difficulties
4 Products and services
5 Acquisition of Broadview Security
6 See also
8 External links
In the United States in the 19th century, there were many small telegram delivery companies; in 1874, 57 district telegraph delivery companies affiliated and became "American District Telegraph". With the increase in telephone usage in the late 19th century, ADT's messenger business slowly declined in popularity. ADT tried branching out and developing their signaling business while still maintaining their telegraph business as primary income source. ADT incorporated into Western Union in 1901. ADT separated its messenger business from its main signaling business at this time. In 1909, Western Union and ADT came under the control of AT&T. ADT began to expand into new areas like fire alarms and burglar alarms between 1910 and 1930, but was kept separate from AT&T's Holmes alarm business. ADT became a publicly owned company in the 1960s.
In 1964, ADT was found to be a monopoly in restraint of trade. It was shown to provide almost 80% of the central station alarm service in the United States. In some cities, such New York City and Memphis, Tennessee, they were the sole provider. They were also found to have forced out of business competitors by lowering prices below cost. They would charge national accounts very low prices in cities with competitors and much higher prices where no competition was available. ADT was forced to adopt a national price list, which could not be varied, to help establish Central Station Competitors in cities without competition, and to pay fines and triple damages to the federal government, customers, and local competitors.
In 1977, the UK's Lord Ashcroft had bought under performing outdoor equipment maker Hawley Goodall, and transformed it through acquisition into business services group, registered in Bermuda. In the early part 1987, Hawley bought Crime Control Inc. based in Indianapolis for $50 million, placing the company fourth place spot in the U.S. security market. Later in the year it bought ADT. This purchase transformed Hawley into the leading security services business in the United States, and resulted in the majority of its revenues coming from the North American market. As a result of the acquisition, Hawley changed its name to ADT Inc. and decided to refocus its business around security services. At the end of 1987, the company sold its North American-based facility services business to Denmark's ISS A/S.
By the mid 1990s, ADT surpassed the 1 million customer milestone. In 1997, ADT was purchased by Tyco by means of a reverse takeover, thus allowing Tyco a Bermudan tax status. Lord Ashcroft joined the board of Tyco, although he had quickly disposed of a large amount of his Tyco stock taken in payment for the purchase of ADT.
In May 2010, ADT acquired competitor Broadview Security for $2.0 billion dollars. Broadview's services were transitioned to the existing ADT brand.
During March 2011, ADT opened a $1.5 million integrated solutions center (ISC) in Colorado. The ISC is more than 6, 500 square feet (600 m2) and features three show rooms open to the public. The purpose of the ISC is to educate the public on home security systems. 
ADT in the UK
ADT first entered the United Kingdom in the late 1950s with the establishment of Electric Protection Services Limited based in London and introduced central monitoring in the mid-60s at the request of several leading banks, despite not opening a central monitoring station of their own. The 1970s and 80s brought steady growth.
In the mid 1990s, ADT Inc was acquired by Tyco International at the same time Tyco also bought up the UK firm Thorn Security. In 1997, ADT Fire and Security plc was formed from the merger of three of the UK’s largest security firms: ADT, Thorn Security and Modern Security Systems.
An ADT Bel-Air Patrol vehicle
ADT provides monitored burglar, fire and video surveillance systems. ADT has branches in 50 different countries, with over 62, 000 employees. ADT had gross revenue of $8 billion in 2008.
ADT has branches covering the United States, Canada and Latin America, as well as 21 countries in Europe. ADT UK and Ireland has 23 branches employing around 5, 500 people. ADT Europe has annual gross revenues of at least $2.6 Billion. ADT has branches in seven Asian countries, one branch in South Africa, and branches in Australia and New Zealand.
ADT is the largest security company in the United States, serving over 8.3 million customers. As of 2004 ADT holds 35% market share of the North American market. and has eight monitoring stations, six in the United States and two in Canada.
ADT is the UK’s leading security company, helping to protect over 250, 000 UK family homes and 160, 000 businesses across the country. ADT UK has also a specialist vehicle division tasked to create and maintain CCTV and riot control vehicles for police forces around the country.
In 1989 ADT Fire and Security was granted a 45 year contract to maintain the security of the British and American Governments.
ADT Security also has an authorized dealer program. Under this program, independent dealers offer security system installations which are then monitored by ADT. Some ADT Authorized Dealers use similar Honeywell/Ademco products as installed by ADT, while other dealers utilize GE/ITI or DSC products.
Whether a customer purchases ADT monitoring services directly from ADT or through an authorized dealer, a 36-month monitoring contract is required, except in California, where the term is 24 months.
ADT was successfully sued by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission on 2007 for violations of the Telemarketing Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act and was required to pay $2 million to settle the charges. ADT subsidiary Alarm King and Direct Security Services were similarly charged and paid from $20, 000 to $25, 000.
Products and services
Home Security Systems (including Fire and Life Safety)
Custom Home Security Systems (including Fire and Life Safety)
Home Health and Companion Systems
Home Video Surveillance
Small Business Intrusion Detection
Small Business Video Surveillance
Small Business Electronic Access Control
Medium & Large Business Intrusion Detection
Medium & Large Business Fire & Life Safety
Medium & Large Business Video Surveillance
Medium & Large Business Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Medium & Large Business Electronic Access Control
Medium & Large Business Electronic Article Surveillance and Smart Electronic Article Surveillance
Medium & Large Business Preferred Services
Medium & Large Business Security Monitoring Services
Medium & Large Business ADT Select Solutions
Medium & Large Business ADT Advanced Integration
Medium & Large Business Store Business Intelligence
Medium & Large Business ADT Anti-Skim ATM Security Solutions
Government Access Control
Government Fire & Life Safety
Government Intrusion Detection and Control
Government CCTV & Surveillance
Government Executive Protection
Government Security System Integration and Design
Government Public Warning/ Mass Notification Systems
Building Management Systems
Acquisition of Broadview Security
In early 2010, Tyco International announced that it was acquiring Brink's Home Security Holdings, (operating as Broadview Security) and was merging the company with its ADT brand name in a transaction valued at $2.0 billion. The transaction, which was finalized and closed mid 2010, combined the #1 and #2 security companies in North America, adding Broadview's 1.3 million customer accounts and $565 million in annual reoccurring revenue to ADT's existing customer base of 7.4 million accounts and $7 billion in annual reoccurring revenue.
|Tyco International Ltd. NYSE: TYC is a highly diversified global manufacturing company incorporated in Switzerland, with United States operational headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey (Tyco International (US) Inc.). Tyco International is composed of three major business segments: Security Solutions, Fire Protection and Flow Control.|
In June 2007, Tyco concluded a corporate separation that split the company into three publicly independent companies: Covidien Ltd. (formerly Tyco Healthcare), Tyco Electronics Ltd. and Tyco International Ltd. (formerly Tyco Fire & Security and Tyco Engineered Products & Services (TFS/TEPS))
Tyco International announced in January 2010 that it is acquiring Brink's Home Security Holdings, (operating as Broadview Security) in a transaction valued at $2.0 billion. It is reported that Broadview Security will merge into Tyco's ADT Security Services division.
1.6 Early 2002
1.7 Late 2002
2 Company separation
3 Corporate scandal of 2002
4 Net revenues by year
6 Environmental record
7 See also
10 External links
Founded by Arthur J. Gandua in 1960, Tyco, Inc. was formed as an investment and holding company with two segments: Tyco Semiconductors and The Materials Research Laboratory. In the first two years of operation, the company focused primarily on governmental experiments in the private sector.
In 1962, the business was incorporated in Massachusetts and refocused on high-tech materials science and energy conservation products. Two years later in 1964, the company went public and began to fill gaps in its development and distribution network by acquiring Mule Battery Products, the first of Tyco’s 16 acquisitions in the next four years.
Cover scan of the final issue of Tyco World, May 2006
In the 1970s Tyco boomed, beginning the decade with consolidated sales and stockholder equity reaching $34 million and $15 million, respectively.
In 1974, Tyco was listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
By the end of the decade, Tyco had a larger and more diverse corporation with sales topping $500 million and a net worth of nearly $140 million. Tyco’s success was largely attributed to ambitious acquisitions of Simplex Technology, Grinnell Fire Protection Systems, Armin Plastics and the Ludlow Corporation.
Following an aggressive acquisition period through the 1970s, Tyco management focused the early 1980s on organizing its newly acquired subsidiaries. Tyco divided the company into three business segments (Fire Protection, Electronics, and Packaging), and implemented strategies to achieve significant market share in each of Tyco’s product lines.
Once organized, Tyco returned to the strategy of growth by acquisition in the later part of the decade acquiring Grinnell Corporation, Allied Tube and Conduit, and the Mueller Company. Tyco then again, reorganized its subsidiaries into four segments: Electrical and Electronic Components, Healthcare and Specialty Products, Fire and Security Services and Flow Control. This reorganization remained in place until 2007 when current CEO, Ed Breen, spun off the Electrical and Healthcare segments to create three publicly independent companies.
In 1992, Dennis Kozlowski became CEO of Tyco International, and, for the next several years, the company again adopted an aggressive acquisition strategy, eventually acquiring (by some accounts) over 1000 other companies between 1991 and 2001.
Major acquisitions in the 1990s included: Wormald International Limited, Neotecha, Hindle/Winn, Classic Medical, Uni-Patch, Promeon, Preferred Pipe, Kendall International Co., Tectron Tube, Unistrut, Earth Technology Corporation, Professional Medical Products, Inc., Thorn Security, Carlisle, Watts Waterworks Businesses, Sempell, ElectroStar, American Pipe & Tube, Submarine Systems Inc., Keystone, INBRAND, Sherwood Davis & Geck, United States Surgical, Wells Fargo Alarm, AMP, Raychem, Glynwed, Temasa and Central Sprinkler designs.
To reflect Tyco’s global presence following the abundant acquisitions, the company’s name was changed from Tyco Laboratories, Inc. to Tyco International Ltd. in 1993. In addition, Tyco launched The Pipeline, an internal employee newsletter; the title was later changed to Tyco World. Its final issue was published in April–May 2006.
In 1996, Tyco was added to the Standard & Poor's S&P 500 Composite Index, which consists of the 500 publicly traded companies in the United States with the largest market capitalization.
In July 1997, Tyco merged by reverse takeover with smaller publicly traded security services company named ADT Limited, controlled by Lord Ashcroft. Upon consummation of the merger, Tyco International Ltd. of Massachusetts became a wholly owned subsidiary of ADT Limited, and simultaneously ADT changed its name to Tyco International Ltd., retaining the former Tyco stock symbol, TYC. The merger moved Tyco’s incorporation to Bermuda, where it was headquartered in the colonial capital of Hamilton. A new subsidiary named ADT Security Services was also formed out of the merger.
In 1999 Tyco acquired two S&P 500 companies in a US$3 billion buyout; the electronics connector manufacturer AMP Inc. and a global leader in materials science, Raychem Corp.
In 2000, Tyco closed the year spinning off a deep-sea fiber-optic cable-laying division it had purchased from AT&T as Tyco Submarine Systems in a much anticipated initial public offering.
Tyco’s aggressive acquisition strategy continued into the early 2000s, with the purchases of General Surgical Innovations, Siemens Electrochemical Components, AFC Cable and Praegitzer. The additions gave Tyco an ending fiscal 2000 year revenue exceeding $28 billion, near $2 billion coming from the sale by a subsidiary of its common shares.
In the fiscal 2001 year, Tyco acquired Mallinckrodt Inc. and Simplex Time Recorder Company which it later merged in January 2002 with Grinnell Fire Protection to form an indirect wholly owned subsidiary, SimplexGrinnell LP, the world's largest fire protection company. For the year ended September 2001, the company's book value exceeded $110 billion. However, the company more than doubled its long-term debt, by over $80 billion.
In October 2001, the Engineered Products and Services segment acquired Century Tube Corp, and followed it by buying Water & Power Technologies in November 2001. The following November, the Tyco Electronics segment acquired Transpower Technologies. The next month, the Plastics and Adhesives segment acquired LINQ Industrial Fabrics, Inc.
With complexity growing within Tyco’s subsidiaries, in January 2002, Tyco announced a plan to split the business into four separate companies. However, this plan was abandoned after a downgrade in its credit rating and a significant drop in its stock price.
Later that month, Tyco’s acquisitions continued throughout all of its segments: the Electronics segment acquired Communications Instruments, Inc. The Healthcare segment bought Paragon Trade Brands. The Engineered Products and Services segment acquired Clean Air Systems. And the fire and Security segment of Tyco acquired SBC/Smith Alarm Systems, DSC Group, and Sensormatic Electronics Corp.
For all the acquisitions Tyco made in 2002, the company also incurred extensive losses. During the first quarter of 2002, following the recession of the previous year, the electronics segment recorded a charge of over $2 billion, related to massive overcapacity of fiber-optic cable, which in turn affected the in-process buildout of Tyco's global undersea fiber-optic network, known as Tyco Global Network (TGN). TGN generated a loss for fiscal 2002 of over $3 billion, with a restructuring charge of over $500 million. Construction of TGN was eventually completed in 2003.
The electronics segment also recorded over $1 billion in restructuring charges in 2002 from inventory write-down and facility closures. In addition, 2002 struck Tyco with two goodwill impairments, the first for over $500 million in the second quarter, due to their fiber-cable overcapacity issue and other corporate problems. The second, costing the electronics segment $250 million related to sales issues in Power Systems, Electrical Contracting Services, and the Printed Circuit Group. To make Tyco’s financial matters worse, the company lost over a quarter of $1 billion in investment during 2002 in FLAG Telecom Holdings Ltd.
In an effort to cut losses, on July 8, 2002, Tyco divested its Tyco Capital business through an initial public offering, with the sale of 100% of the common shares in CIT Group Incorporated. It recorded the CIT divestment as discontinued operations for 2002, for a $6 billion loss, and as an almost $7 billion impairment charge. That month, the Tyco Healthcare segment also divested Surgical Dynamics, Inc.
For the year ended September 2002, Tyco revenue rose to nearly $35 billion. However, it suffered more than a $9 billion loss that year, which included the asset impairment write-down of TGN by over $3 billion, losses of nearly $2 billion for the two restructuring charges, and over $1 billion from the two goodwill impairment charges. In all, the net charges totaled nearly $7 billion of the loss that year. The stock price plummeted.
To add to the financial woes of the company, midway through the fiscal 2002 year, Tyco became embroiled in a massive scandal involving the excesses by its former chairman and CEO, L. Dennis Kozlowski, and his senior management team. Kozlowski resigned and former Tyco CEO John F. Fort (Tyco) became interim CEO until the board of directors completed a search for a permanent replacement. As a consequence, on June 17, 2002, Tyco filed federal suit against Mark H. Swartz, Tyco's former executive vice president and chief corporate counsel, and Frank E. Walsh, a former director.
In July 2002, Edward D. Breen was appointed president, CEO, and chairman of Tyco for an initial three-year term. Breen had previously been president and COO of Motorola since his promotion at that company in January 2002.
Breen made an immediate impact on Tyco by gutting the existing board of directors and leadership team that worked with Kozlowski and replacing them with a new set of managers. One month after his appointment, Tyco announced the appointment of John Krol as lead director of the Board of Directors with the priority of improving Tyco's Corporate Governance.
Breen made additional changes, appointing David FitzPatrick as Executive Vice President and CFO, William Lytton, Executive Vice President and General Counsel, and Eric Pillmore as Senior Vice President of Corporate Governance.
With a new management team in place, Tyco began a two phase internal investigation of former CEO Kozlowski. The investigation led to Tyco filing two federal law suits. On September 12 and December 6, 2002, Tyco filed a federal suit against Kozlowski and an arbitration claim against former CFO and director, Mark H. Swartz. Swartz, however, failed to submit to the American Arbitration Association and Tyco followed with a federal suit against him.
On November 27, 2002, the State of New Jersey took action in the scandal, filing a federal suit against Tyco and former personnel, with charges in part of violating the New Jersey Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) statute, stemming from the Kozlowski scandal.
As a result of the scandal, Tyco and some former directors and officers were named as defendants in more than two dozen securities class-action lawsuits. Most of the cases were consolidated and transferred to the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire and filed by court-appointed lead plaintiffs on January 28, 2003, as the case In Re Tyco International Securities Litigation, citing causes of action under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. That March 31, Tyco made a motion to dismiss, which was granted in part over a year later, on October 14, 2004.
On February 3, 2003, the scandal continued to play out in the courts, Tyco and more personnel were again named as defendants in an amended consolidated class-action federal suit brought on behalf of retirees in its Retirement Savings and Investment Plans, citing causes under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. On December 2, 2004, the New Hampshire court granted in part Tyco's motion to dismiss.
Removed from the scandal, Tyco made internal moves within the company in 2003 forming its Plastics & Adhesives business segment, a former piece of the Healthcare & Specialty Products segment. Other changes came in Tyco’s corporate governance: Tyco’s board re-elected John Krol as lead director, Tyco reorganized the assignments of the board’s committee, adopted a new board of governance principles and new Delegation of Authority policy which strengthened control over cash disbursements within the company.
The final improvement on corporate governance came in the Guide to Ethical Conduct. The guide was produced to advise employees as to correct procedures and warn of unethical practices and behavior. All Tyco employees are now required to take a brief ethics course and sign an annual ethics statement.
In an effort to enhance consumer awareness and revive corporate image, in June 2004, Tyco launched a new global print-advertising campaign, “Tyco a vital part of your world.” Tyco also began a divestiture program following a review of its core businesses. Part of the plan was to sell TGN, which by then had been entirely written off in value. Agreement for the sale was reached in November.
In the second quarter of 2004, ADT Security sold off Sonitrol.
In all, within its divestiture program, by fiscal year end of 2004, Tyco had divested 21 businesses and liquidated four non-core businesses, primarily within the Fire and Security segment.
In September 2004, Tyco also divested Electrical Contracting Services from the electronics segment, due to a decrease in sales. After September 30, Tyco divested an additional seven non-core businesses, bringing the program aggregate proceeds up to $500 million that year.
By the end of 2004, Tyco employed under 260, 000 people, with two-thirds outside the United States. Revenue was up strongly, to over $40 billion for the first time. Once again the strengthening euro against the dollar helped Tyco, accounting primarily for $1.5 billion of the increase in revenue. Various charges, losses, and debt repayment totaled nearly $1 billion in 2004, however profitability tripled that year to almost $3 billion.
Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL), India acquired the Tyco Global Network (TGN) from Tyco International for $130 million. The chief stockholder in VSNL is India's Tata Group, also one of India's largest conglomerates. It was once valued at $3 billion during the telecommunications bubble.
Tyco continued its divestiture program throughout 2005. The largest divestiture came in the announcement of a definitive agreement to sell its Plastics, Adhesives and Ludlow Coated Products businesses to an affiliate of private investment firm Apollo Management, L.P. Tyco believed the segment no longer fit within the company's portfolio.
Tyco was awarded the largest statewide public safety communications project in the United States in 2004 when one of Tyco Electronics’ businesses, M/A-COM, signed a contract to maintain New York's Statewide Wireless Network (SWN). The contract was worth approximately $2 billion and would last for 20 years.
Tyco also acquired two key companies to its Healthcare segment, Vivant Medical Inc. and Floréane Medical Implants.
By the end of the fiscal year 2006, Tyco’s revenue had eclipsed $17 Billion. Despite the strong cash flow, growing revenue and decreased debt, Tyco and its Board of Directors approved a plan to separate Tyco into three publicly independent companies. Tyco believed that this would allow for each segment to perform better within its particular market and create more value for its shareholders.
The separation was completed in July 2007, when Tyco separated into three publicly independent companies:
Covidien Ltd. (formerly Tyco Healthcare)
Tyco Electronics Ltd.
Tyco International Ltd. (formerly Tyco Fire & Security and Tyco Engineered Products & Services (TFS/TEPS))
Following the separation, Chairman and CEO Ed Breen remained at the head of Tyco International, which is now composed of five major business segments: ADT Worldwide, Fire Protection Services, Safety Products, Flow Control and Electrical and Metal Products. The company generated revenue of $18.8 billion in 2007 and employs 118, 000 people across all 50 states and in more than 60 countries.
An announcement was made publicly on January 13, 2006, that the company would subdivide into three smaller independent companies.
An official "Separation Management Team" was created to deal with all aspects of the separation and to make it as smooth as possible for customers, employees, and shareholders. Bob Scott was announced as its leader. Scott had joined Tyco in 2004.
On June 29, 2007, Tyco completed the share distribution separating the company into three wholly independent, publicly traded companies,  each with its own board of directors, CEO, management staff, and financial structure.
The three new companies became:
Covidien Ltd., formerly Tyco Healthcare
Tyco Electronics Ltd.
Tyco International Ltd., formerly Tyco Fire & Security and Tyco Engineered Products & Services (TFS/TEPS)
Edward Breen, CEO of Tyco at the time of the split, announced that he would be staying on as CEO of the newly structured Tyco International, overseeing TFS/TEPS.
Completing the share distribution, on June 29, shareholders received one common share each of the two new companies, Covidien and Tyco Electronics, for every four common shares held of the old Tyco International stock. That July 6, the new Tyco International issued a one-for-four reverse stock split.
Corporate scandal of 2002
Former chairman and chief executive Dennis Kozlowski and former chief financial officer Mark H. Swartz were accused of the theft of more than $150 million from the company. During their trial in March 2004, they contended the board of directors authorized it as compensation.
During jury deliberations, juror Ruth Jordan, while passing through the courtroom, appeared to make an "okay" sign with her fingers to the defense table. She later denied she had intended that gesture, but the incident received much publicity (including a caricature in the Wall Street Journal), and the juror received threats after her name became public. Judge Michael Obus declared a mistrial on April 2, 2004.
On June 17, 2005, after a retrial, Kozlowski and Swartz were convicted on all but one of the more than 30 counts against them. The verdicts carry potential jail terms of up to 25 years in state prison. Kozlowski himself was sentenced to no less than eight years and four months and no more than 25 years in prison. Swartz received the same sentence. Then in May 2007, New Hampshire Federal District Court Judge Paul Barbadoro approved a class action settlement whereby Tyco agreed to pay $2.92 billion (in conjunction with 225 million by PricewaterHouse Coopers, their auditors) to a class of defrauded shareholders represented by Grant & Eisenhofer P.A., Schiffrin, Barroway, Topaz & Kessler, and Milberg Weiss & Bershad.
Net revenues by year
Year 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997
Revenue (in US$B) $18.8* $41.0 $39.3 $38.0 $36.8 $35.6 $34.0 $28.9 $22.5 $19.1 $6.6
*Denotes the year of Tyco's separation into three publicly independent companies.
Tyco Fire & Security headquarters in Boca Raton (also home to ADT, Sensormatic, and SimplexGrinnell)
Some of the many products made by Tyco include:
Fire alarm systems (Simplex)
Fire-fighting hardware and Fire-fighting foam concentrates (Ansul, Skum, Total Walther, and Sabo)
Circuit protection devices
Fire sprinklers (SimplexGrinnell, Wormald)
Security systems (ADT, DSC)
GRINNELL Grooved Products
Valves and controls
Pressure-relief valves for nuclear power generation
Safety products (including industrial-site safety & personal protective equipment (PPE))
EAS (electronic article surveillance) & RFID (radio frequency identification) products (Sensormatic)
CCTV/Access Control Equipment (American Dynamics, Kantech, Software House, CEM Systems)
Tyco Printed Circuit Group (TPCG) of Stamford, Connecticut, was sentenced on 12 counts of violationing the Clean Water Act in August 2004. The plea agreement called for TPCG to pay a total of $10 million in fines. Of that amount, 6 million was paid as a federal criminal fine; $2.7 million went to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) natural resources fund; the Towns of Stafford and Manchester received $500, 000 each to fund improvements in their sewer and water treatment system; and $300, 000 was paid for recycling deionized and other wastewater at the company's Stafford, Staffordville facilities. Between 1999 and June 2001, TPCG managers at the company's Stafford, Staffordville and Manchester facilities engaged in a variety of practices that caused the facilities to discharge wastewater with higher than permitted levels of pollutants into municipal sewage treatment systems. The illegal practices included, but were not limited to, diluting potentially non-compliant [wastewater samples, discarding samples with excessive levels of toxic metals, and omitting samples that were not in compliance for pH. Daniel R. Callahan, the former Director of Environmental Health and Safety of Stafford Division of Tyco Printed Circuit Group, pled guilty to violating the Clean Water Act on November 17 of 2003. Callahan falsified reports submitted to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The reports failed to include the fact that a "batch tank" had been discharged into the Manchester public sewer system. Tyco's DEP permit required that all discharges into public sewer systems be reported. Tyco was 41st on the 2002 Political Economy Research Institute's (PERI) Toxic 100.
|Security is the degree of protection against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. The Institute for Security and Open Methodologies (ISECOM) in the OSSTMM 3 defines security as "a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat". This includes but is not limited to the elimination of either the asset or the threat. Security as a national condition was defined in a United Nations study (1986), so that countries can develop and progress safely.|
Security has to be compared to related concepts: safety, continuity, reliability. The key difference between security and reliability is that security must take into account the actions of people attempting to cause destruction.
Different scenarios also give rise to the context in which security is maintained:
With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security.
Measures taken by a military unit, an activity or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness.
1 Perceived security compared to real security
2 Categorising security
3 Security concepts
4 Security management in organizations
5 People in the security business
5.1 Computer security
5.2 National security
5.3 Physical security
6 See also
Perceived security compared to real security
Perception of security may be poorly mapped to measureable objective security. For example, the fear of earthquakes has been reported to be more common than the fear of slipping on the bathroom floor although the latter kills many more people than the former. Similarly, the perceived effectiveness of security measures is sometimes different from the actual security provided by those measures. The presence of security protections may even be taken for security itself. For example, two computer security programs could be interfering with each other and even cancelling each other's effect, while the owner believes s/he is getting double the protection.
Security theater is a critical term for deployment of measures primarily aimed at raising subjective security in a population without a genuine or commensurate concern for the effects of that measure on—and possibly decreasing—objective security. For example, some consider the screening of airline passengers based on static databases to have been Security Theater and Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System to have created a decrease in objective security.
Perception of security can also increase objective security when it affects or deters malicious behavior, as with visual signs of security protections, such as video surveillance, alarm systems in a home, or an anti-theft system in a car such as a LoJack, signs.
Since some intruders will decide not to attempt to break into such areas or vehicles, there can actually be less damage to windows in addition to protection of valuable objects inside. Without such advertisement, a car-thief might, for example, approach a car, break the window, and then flee in response to an alarm being triggered. Either way, perhaps the car itself and the objects inside aren't stolen, but with perceived security even the windows of the car have a lower chance of being damaged, increasing the financial security of its owner(s).
However, the non-profit, security research group, ISECOM, has determined that such signs may actually increase the violence, daring, and desperation of an intruder  This claim shows that perceived security works mostly on the provider and is not security at all.
It is important, however, for signs advertising security not to give clues as to how to subvert that security, for example in the case where a home burglar might be more likely to break into a certain home if he or she is able to learn beforehand which company makes its security system.
There is an immense literature on the analysis and categorisation of security. Part of the reason for this is that, in most security systems, the "weakest link in the chain" is the most important. The situation is asymmetric since the 'defender' must cover all points of attack while the attacker need only identify a single weak point upon which to concentrate.
Port security/Supply chain security
Shopping centre security
Aviation security is a combination of material and human resources and measures intended to counter unlawful interference with aviation.
Operations Security (OPSEC) is a complement to other "traditional" security measures that evaluates the organization from an adversarial perspective.
Certain concepts recur throughout different fields of security:
Assurance - assurance is the level of guarantee that a security system will behave as expected
Countermeasure - a countermeasure is a way to stop a threat from triggering a risk event
Defense in depth - never rely on one single security measure alone
Exploit - a vulnerability that has been triggered by a threat - a risk of 1.0 (100%)
Risk - a risk is a possible event which could cause a loss
Threat - a threat is a method of triggering a risk event that is dangerous
Vulnerability - a weakness in a target that can potentially be exploited by a threat security
Security management in organizations
In the corporate world, various aspects of security were historically addressed separately - notably by distinct and often noncommunicating departments for IT security, physical security, and fraud prevention. Today there is a greater recognition of the interconnected nature of security requirements, an approach variously known as holistic security, "all hazards" management, and other terms.
Inciting factors in the convergence of security disciplines include the development of digital video surveillance technologies (see Professional video over IP) and the digitization and networking of physical control systems (see SCADA). Greater interdisciplinary cooperation is further evidenced by the February 2005 creation of the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management, a joint venture including leading associations in security (ASIS), information security (ISSA, the Information Systems Security Association), and IT audit (ISACA, the Information Systems Audit and Control Association).
In 2007 the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) released ISO 28000 - Security Management Systems for the supply chain. Although the title supply chain is included, this Standard specifies the requirements for a security management system, including those aspects critical to security assurance for any organisation or enterprise wishing to management the security of the organisation and its activities. ISO 28000 is the foremost risk based security system and is suitable for managing both public and private regulatory security, customs and industry based security schemes and requirements.
People in the security business
See also: Computer security, Cryptography, and Economics of security
Ross J. Anderson
See also: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and National security
Richard A. Clarke
David H. Holtzman
See also: Private police
James F. Pastor
Wireless sensor network
Public Security Bureau
^ Bruce Schneier, Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly about Security in an Uncertain World, Copernicus Books, pages 26-27
^ OSPA Website
^ Taming the Two-Headed Beast, CSOonline, September 2002
^ Security 2.0, CSOonline, April 2005
^ AESRM Website
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